Tuesday, August 1, 2017

Rhine Campaign 1793

In the Prussian army, the losses which had been attributed to the campaign of the previous year were not compensated until spring of 1793.

In the middle of March, with a view towards success a sufficient number of troops were united to the campaign under the immediate command of the Duke of Brunswick.
56,000 Prussian
6,000   Hessian
5,500   Kurfürstlich Sächsische
3,700   Darmstädtische

Of Austrian troops, six thousand men were employed for the direct co-operation of the Hohenlohe-Kirchberg corps at Trier, and to the Prussian General von Kalkreuth, while the imperial General Count Wurm. A corps of 1800 men at Heidelberg was instructed, "to be in all parts according to the direction and disposition, which is the majesty of the king, or of the supreme Commanding Duke of Brunswick, with his Corps troops will be found to be good and necessary, too behavior."

The army in the Netherlands, 55,000 Austrians, 11,400 Prussians, 1,000 Hanoverians, and Hesse under Duke Josias of Saxony-Coburg, opened the campaign on the 1st of March, and on the 18th the French General Dumouriez near Nerwinden.  Thus the King of Prussia was induced to set the Rhine armies in motion earlier than originally intended, and to put the encirclement of Mainz on the left bank of the Rhine into the works, before the material had been brought to a formal siege of the fortress. The occupation was to be deprived of the advantages which they had gained from the possession of the left bank of the Rhine and from the connection with the Rhine army stationed there.

This corps, about 45,0001) men under General Custine, was cantoned between the Rhine and the Nahe, and as had the generals Houchard and Neuwinger with detachments to the latter river.

1) Garrison of Mainz, 22,000 men.

Of other French forces only the Moselle Army, 25,000 men, who opposed the Hohenlohe-Kirchberg corps on the Saar, could support Custine. 30,000 men were distributed as garrisons in Landau and the strong places of the upper armory, but they were not subordinate to the order of the commanding generals, rather they received their orders directly from the ministry.

The army, with about 10,000 men on the right bank, was to cross the Rhine below Mainz. A detachment of light troops under the Prussian colonel, Szekuly, on March 14th, at St. Goar, initiated the operation quite miserably, having been repulsed by General Neuwinger, who was at Bingen, in the direction of Bacharach. At any rate, the advanced guard managed to cross 12,000 men under Hereditary Prince Hohenlohe, the Rhine on 25 March near Bacharach.

The Hessian Corps was easily assigned to the troops of the Hussars, the Hussar Regiment, Jäger-Corps, the two companies of 170 men, the light infantry battalion of Lenz, two companies of 172 men, was assigned to the advanced guard under Colonel Schreiber.

The Hussars had broken camp on the 21st out of Rüsselsheim, had passed the Main, and reached the Rhine near Lorch in three days' marches. (21th - Bierstadt near Wiesbaden, 22nd - Mappershain and Egenrath on the Nassau road, 23rd - Ramsell, 24th - Ruhetag, foraging in Caub). On the 25th, as mentioned above, the passage to Bacharach took place, and Schreiber, as a vanguard of Hohenloh, was still on this day on the roads of Rheinbollen.

The transition of the Advanced- guard Corps also occupied the 26th. It was not until the 27th of the afternoon that the concentration was concentrated on the position occupied by General Neuwinger at Waldalgesheim, half a mile west of Bingen. The French did not stop the attack of the Prussian infantry, and fled near, followed by the Prussian and Hessian hussars, whom King Frederick William II had himself ordered from the second meeting. General Neuwinger was captured with 300 men, and six guns were also taken. On the following day, Bingen fell into the hands of the allies.

On the morning of March 28, Schreiber's Corps had been advanced early on the morning to the Rummelshain on the left bank, against the position which General Houchard had taken north-west of Kreuznach.  On the same day, at Bingen, they crossed the Nahe, and advanced eastward towards Ober-Ingelheim and Engelstadt, to secure the section of the Selzbach.

Behind it stood the Hohenlohe's Advanced-Guard Corps. The Prussian General von Eben, with two battalions, fourteen escadrons, and the Detachment Szekuly advanced following Custine to Mzey.

To ascertain the terrain between Selz and the Rhine, at 1 o’clock at night Schreiber sent out a mixed patrol. Fifty Jäger and light-light infantry, and twenty hussars (Captain von Ochs, Lieutenants Wetzell, and Grau) towards Mainz.

On the 29th Hohenlohe moved his headquarters to Arnsheim. The advanced guard was pushed further south, Colonel Schreiber went to Uffhofen with the Fusilier-Battalion Thadden, and made contact with Eben's Corps. The first meeting of the Main Army moved into yesterday's position of the advanced guard on this broad front along the Rhine.

Custine had returned with his main forces to Worms, but had his rearguard under Houchard near Ober-Flörsheim in
favorable position, as well as a corps at Oppenheim ordered to stay at Guntersblum Alsheim halfway to Worms.  All this to the march of a detachment of 8000 men with Artillery, which he thought of drawing from Mainz.  The dispersed arrangement did not fulfill its purpose. The Hereditary Prince of Hohenlohe received a report from Houchard at Gau Odernheim. He designated General von Koehler against it, and left it to him, to deal with the French in the association with Eben, while he himself had his march continued. His vanguard, Hussars of Wolfrath, Hessian hussars and Jägers, encountered the troops at Alsheim; The same From the bulk of the advanced guard to Worms. The Cavalry of Prince Louis Ferdinand succeeded in breaking into the retreating Carrees, and taking from the French 1400 prisoners, three guns, and a war camp. The Hessian Hussars also successfully participated in this struggle. In the meantime, the other troops moved into cantons. His Majesty the King had moved his headquarters to Alsheim, and had already arrived there, when the previously mentioned occupation of the Occupation of Mainz had arrived at the place without any suspicion.

As with all such unexpected encounters, the advantage turned to those who sought to put an end to the fatal situation by a bold offensive, here the Colonel von Sitzitz, with the regimental Prince Hohenlohe. The French, on the other hand, were surprised by the energetic attack, and retreated to Mainz, violently pursued by the cavalry returning from their excursion to Worms.

The Hessian Hussars captured eighty prisoners, but their loss on the day referred to was seized on seven horses, fifteen men, and eight horses wounded. At night they moved a bivouac on the heights of the Mantenbar northwest of Guntersblum, securing against Mainz. However, on the next day, the 31st of March, the second meeting of the Prussian army included the latter place on the left bank of the Rhine.  The Hussian Hussars moved southward, and united with the advanced guard on April 2nd, which occupied a position near Osthofen. Custine had continued his retreat to the rear of the Speyer stream, but when he heard the report of the Rhine crossing of the Austrian General, Count Wurm, he went back to the Lauter, leaving the Landau fortress to itself.  On his left flank he made contact with the Moselle army, which stood at the confluence the Saar and Blies Rivers in several fixed camps, along with his Command. In this position of about twelve miles he succeeded in arranging his troops demoralized by the rapid retreat and by gradually reinforcing them.

He was followed only by Graf Wurmser, who commanded 12,600 men of Austria, and an Emigrant-Corps, about six thousand strong. The Prussian army had departed a blockade corps for Mainz, while the rest, under the name of "Beobachtungs-Armee," stood between Worms and Oppenheim, and pushed only an advanced guard under Hereditary Prince Hohenlohe into the mountains Osthofen, the Hessian Light Troops Corps, reinforced by fifty Kohler Hussars at the Tete, reached Geroldsheim and Flomersheim near Frankenthal, then westward on the 5th Hertlingshausen and the 6th Kaiserslautern.

To this point the bulk of the advanced guard followed, while the Hessian brigade on the 7th to the head of the estate, and there was a post office1.

1) See special map of the surrounding area of Homburg.

Schreiber sent several patrols against the Blies; One of them, Lieutenant Keitel, with twenty hussars and thirty Jägers, advanced on the main road leading through Vogelbach to Homburg, where they arrived at  1 o'clock in the night. Keitel had some inhabitants, who were suspected of being friends of the French, arrested. He also had the freedom tree which was erected in the village surrounded. The patrol returned to the Jägersburg and the Eichelscheider Hof, in order to reconnoiter this path, which leads through dams on wet pastures.

Another patrol  by Lieutenant von Baumbach (Battalion of Lenz) with twenty infantrymen, ten Jägers, and twenty hussars, Cornet of Laroche), proceeded from Vogelbach on the heights, and observed the presence of stronger French forces behind the Blies, and bivouacked behind Carlsberg Castle, without however, letting the enemy out of his sight, but observing it with clandestine patrols.

On the 10th of April, Schreiber, with his corps, advanced to Bruchmuehlbach, and there awaited the arrival of the hereditary prince of Hohenlohe and General von Pfa, who wanted to reconnoiter the French position on the Blies. They led a fusilier battalion and two escadrons of Wolfrath-Hussars to support him, and at nine-thirty they meet up with Schreiber, whereupon the advance was continued, passed through Homburg.  Field guards were advanced on the right bank of the Blies between Altstadt and Beeden, and under their protection the leaders reconnoitered the enemy camp near Bliescastel.

As the reports of the patrol proved to be correct, the Hereditary Prince gave every man a gift of one florin, an expression of his satisfaction with their achievements.

For the night, the infantry occupied cantons in Homburg, the Hessian Hufaren in Erbach, the Escadrons Wolfrath in Beeden, the latter the front, the former securing the right flank.

On the following day the troops returned to their former position. The Schreiber Corps was dislocated as follows: first Jäger company, first Escadron Hussars in Vogelbach, second infantry company, second company Lenz, second and third Escadron Hussars in Bruch-Mühlbach, first company Lenz in the main chair, while the Fusilier Battalion and two Escadrons of Prussian hussars in and at the canton.

As the French proclaimed the intention of occupying Homburg and Carlsberg, the splendid residence of the Duke of Palatinate, the prince said that the allied troops were to occupy it and to protect them from destruction. Schreiber received orders to go there on April 15th.

The corps of hunters and hussars followed the main road, the battalion of Lenz, with a detachment of Prussian hussars, across the Jagersburg. While the former proceeded as far as Schwarzenacker's passages, and reconnoitred the Blies, the latter remained standing in front of Homburg. Colonel Schreck expected that a simultaneous enterprise of General von Wolfrath over Käshofen against Zweibrücken would divert the attention of his opponent and give him the opportunity to make a coup.

Instead, he received the statement that Wolfrath was retreating with superior forces, and himself saw that two enemy columns were on the march at Homburg.

Now, by moving the battalion of Lenz, he proceeded to return to the Carlsberg, which he intended to defend directly. As, until evening, only the patrols of the French had entered the city, but the bulk had made a great advance, Schreiber sent two detachments of Jäger and light infantry to occupy the town and the Castle Hill immediately adjacent to it.

In the course of the 16th, both were attacked by superior enemy forces; But they asserted themselves in a stubborn struggle until evening, when a report by the Hereditary Prince of Hohenlohe, furnished by Lieutenant Keitel, arrived with reinforcements (a battalion, two escadrons, a half-riding battery), thereby securing the preservation of Carlsberg.

In response to a counter-attack, which had been planned for the 17th, the French withdrew by a retreat at night; The pursuit, begun at daybreak, by the Hessian Hussars, came to a halt on the burnt-out Bliesbrücke near Schwarzenacker.

On the 16th, Colonel Schreiber had been wounded. Four brave officers, who had defended Homburg, were decorated with the Order Pour le Mérit.

Homburg and the Carlsberg remained permanently occupied, the former Orl by the Jäger Corps, the latter by the battalion Lenz, Fusilier-Battalion Ernst, and a battalion Herzberg. The Hessian Hussars, to whom a mixed Prussian hussars detachment had been attached, had advanced in Lambsborn and Bechhofen, only to guard the exit of Homburg. Colonel Schreiber was appointed commander of the Carlsberg, in whose enclosure the Prussian battalions were placed, and in whose heights Prussian guns stood.

Many times a great visit came to take this serious use of the fortress as a fortress. The assertion of this point caused an extraordinary expansion of the allied army. Count Wurmser, with the intention of proceeding in Alsace, had advanced his troops to Germersheim on the Rhine. In order to establish a better alliance of the army, the Duke ordered the bulk of the Prussian army to advance to Edenkoben on the 21st.

On the 18th of April Cornet Bolte was given the order to set aside thirty hussars for a detachment of Chasseur at Limbach. He crossed the Blies at the Bliesberger Hof and surprised a front guard against the old town, and took two guns, which were close behind. Whether he could not recall his cavalier horsemen, or even the foolhardyness of his fortune, enough, he hunted into the village of Limbach, which was heavily occupied by the French. At the first moment of surprise, no one resisted, and perhaps he would have been able to return to the village by the village to the old town, had not a chasseur-section been opposed to it and thrown back into the village street. In desperation, three men fell, Bolte and four hussars were wounded, but the rest managed to return to Homburg by way of side streets, and they even carried five prisoners with them in prey.

Bolte returned from captivity on May 1, but he had had to give his word of honor, not to fight again against the French, until an officer and a commoner had been exchanged for him.

On the urging of the ruling delegates present at the French army, Custine made several unsuccessful attempts to relieve Mainz. All were directed against the most exposed part of the line of the allies, against the Wurmser corps.

At the Blies, the French were still quiet, only on the 19th of April, when the Germans were in motion and about to take up a new camp, Michiinbach, but there was no clash. But when they tied the camp more and more, the Hereditary Prince of Hohenlohe attacked the Doppeldorf old town Limbach on the 29th, took it, and forced the French to leave their camp, whose entrenchments were now occupied by the Prussians.

The course of the campaign, which had hitherto been unfavorable to the Republicans, prompted the French rulers to send the most severe orders to the commanders-in-chief, in order to free Mainz.  The general threatened with death by the ax.

This order also came to the knowledge of the allied leaders, and the Prince of Hereditary Prince did not hesitate to strengthen his distinguished position, the Carlsberg; For his military ambition did not allow him to evacuate it, which, indeed, would have given him a concentrated and, thus, much more favorable position. General von Pfau took command of the troops assembled there on 3 May: Regiment Herzberg, Bataillon Ernst, two Escadrons Wolfrath Hussars and Hessian Corps. Until the 16th of May, it was not to be observed that the French commanders were able to follow the order, and even the Prussian Colonel Szekuly, who was at Erbach, succeeded in ousting fifty-one men from Neunkirchen on the fifteenth, a French detachment of four officers , He had, however, to retire on the 16th before the advance of superior forces. On the 17th, troops from the west were seen to attack the Prussian position. Szekuly was in Erbach, the rest of the troops were advancing to his assistance. When it became known that the enemy was considerably superior, the hills of Limbach were cleared and a position of Homburg-Erbach taken.  The French only demonstrated without a direct attack.

On the other hand, they tried to cover the right wing with strong columns, and threaten the connection of the corps with imperial emperors. The hereditary prince thus compelled himself, on the eighteenth, to give the order to withdraw at 2 o'clock.

Szekuly remained on the Carlsberg, the Hesse bivouacs until the 19th of early morning on the height at the chair, and then took up lodgings in the chair (1st and 2nd escadron) and main chair (3rd escadron). The French movements, however, were mere maneuvers, which had the sole purpose of diverting the attention of the allies from the main attack, which Custine undertook in the Rhine valley. As he was altogether unsuccessful, Houchard, the commander of the Moselle Army, did not continue his demonstrations, and almost complete peace ensued. The position of the Hussars was altered by the fact that the 1st and 2nd Escadrons came to Bruchbach, the 3rd Escadron to Vogelbach, and that Erbach was occupied again since the 26th. One officer, two officers, a trumpeter, twenty-four hussars, with thirty hunters or infantry, formed the garrison and were relieved every 24 hours. Dieselbe drove a chain from the foot of the Carlsberg to Jägersburg along the small Erbach and was secured in the flanks by Szekuly on the Carlsberg and a Prussian detachment in Jägersburg.

It was not until mid-July that the French attempted another advance to the relief of Mainz, and was led by the two armies of the Rhine and Moselle armies simultaneously, but incoherently.

On the eighteenth, the Prussian detachment on the Carlsberg and east of it, repulsed an attack by the enemy troops, whereas on the 19th the Hessian detachment was attacked at two o'clock, and twenty-four men of infantry, and two hussars were captured.

Unfortunately, Schreiber could no longer retaliate for this trick, for, at the same time as the news of the accident, the order came to go back to the Bruchmühlbach-Vogelbach line and take up a position there for the Prussian Detachment.

he hereditary prince concentrated his entire corps at Lauterecken, while the adversary pushed at his right wing, thus threatening the connections of Hohenlohe's corps. The movements of the French arrived, however, by the news that Mainz had capitulated on the 22nd. Houchard, on the 26th, withdrew to his old position, closely followed by the troops of the hereditary prince. The Hessian Hussars, with the battalion of Lenz were in Rodenbach on the 21st and 22nd and in Wolfftein from the 21st thru 26th, without being harrased by the enemy.

On the last day of the afternoon the Hussars regiment broke up to keep in touch with the enemy, and followed Reichenbach, on the 27th to Münchweiler on the Glan. The lieutenant Keitel, with a patrol of one Cornet, three underofficials, and thirty hussars, was sent on the news that the enemy was taking the villagers with them, and the falsehood of the rumor prevailed. On the 29th, the Hessian Corps, which had been reunited on the previous day, reached the troops of Ramstein, and occupied the fortified position there, and advanced the hussars to Katzenbach and Spesbach. On the same day, the French descendants set fire to Carlsberg Palace, and demolished the jumps which had been erected, without the advance of the allies of the Allies. On the 2nd of August, Colonel Schreiber received the order from the Duke of Brunswick to leave the Corps of the Hereditary Prince Hohenlohe and join the imperial army of Count Wurmser.  The reasons for this change were as follows:

On March 22, 1793, on the occasion of the Imperial Assembly at Regensburg, France, the Reichskrieg had been declared.

As a result, Hesse had to submit a contingent to the Reichsheer. As such, the Landgraf, who, since April 1793, had given 8000 men, and since the capitulation of Mainz had given 4000 men of his troops in English pay, and sent them to the Netherlands.  According to the plan of the campaign, however, the Reichscontingente were allotted to the Austrian armies, and the Landgraf, though reluctant, had to submit to the disposition of his troops in this way.

At first Schreiber, who was not given an ordinance by his sovereign, was rather instructed to join the Hessian Corps, which had marched to the Netherlands, and which had been taken in by the English.  Then he hesitated with the execution of the order in question, and sent Major von Lehsten to Mainz to ask General von Biesenroth to ask for instructions.

It was not until the fifth afternoon that he received another definite order of the King of Prussia to march to Wurm1 on August 12th.

1) 4. via Ramstein to Otterberg, 5. Hochspeyer, 6. Neustadt a. d. Hardt, 8. Hardt, 9. Edesheim, north of Landau.

Biesenroth had vainly endeavored to effect a change in the order at the Prussian headquarters. The Hessians had to submit, and leave the fancies which had become dear to them, and to continue the campaign this year with other troops and foreign leaders.

The first task of the campaign was solved by the capitulation of Mainz, as stated above, on the 22nd of July. Although this event had been for a long time to be foreseen, no further war plan had yet been established. The Duke of Brunswick's opinion, which was directed against Saarlouis, was opposed to that of the Austrian court war council, who, on the advice of Count Wurm, suggested that he first proceed to Alsace and conquer Landau.

For this reason, the movements of the allied armies were provisionally limited to an advance of the former siege corps into the front of the covering troops. This inactivity was all the more disastrous as the French troops were demoralized by the fall of Mainz and by a renewed change of leadership.

The armies of the Rhine, whose command was taken over, occupied the Weissenburg lines. The Moselle Army went back to the Blies and entrenched itself in the aforementioned camps of St. Ingbert, Neu Hornbach and Bliescastel.

After lengthy negotiations, the Austrian proposal was provisionally accepted, on the part of the Prussians, when Wurmser was allowed to penetrate Alsace and promised to support this procedure by a position in the mountains. Accordingly, eleven battalions, ten escadrons under General Count Kalkreuth to Neunkirchen, Hohenlohe with fourteen battalions, thirty-five escadrons to Homburg, the Duke of Brunswick took up position with the main army force north of Pirmafens, the king with fourteen battalions, fifteen Escadrons at Edenkoben.

Wurmser's corps consisted of 33,000 men, twenty and a half battalions, thirty-two escadrons of Austria, five battalions, ten escadrons of emigrants under Prince Conde, three battalions, three squadrons of Palatine troops.  On the 12th of August, the four companies and three Escadrons of the Schreiber Corps were joined.  Dieselben was allotted to the outpost, which commanded Major General von Mezarosch.

The outpost line ran from the exit of the Anweiler Valley north around Landau to Offenbach on the Queich and then following the course of this stream to the Rhine near Hördt. On the one hand it covered Landau, on the other hand against the Rhine army standing in the Weißenburger Lines; Croats and hussars worried the connection of the fortress with the French army. The Hessian light troops were at once assigned to Offenbach, one of the most advantageous posts, Landau and his active occupation; A company of the light infantry, Capitain Hegemann, advanced to Mörlheim, and appears to have occupied the Queichmühle and Schanz, about a quarter of a mile north.

The village of Queichheim, which is only 1/4 mile ahead of the front, held the French pre-groups. With two arms of the Queich, the Franzofen offered a secure base, from which they disturbed the outposts most unpleasantly with constant gun and gunfire. Compagnie Hegemann, who was always kept in his breath, had therefore to be relieved at six o'clock in the morning, to give her some rest. Two Austrian eighteen-pounders, who were taken to the Queich-Muehl-Schanze, and slept on the main street of the village of Queichheim, gave Hesse more peace, although both on the 17th and 19th centuries.  In the afternoon stronger divisions left the fortress with the advanced guard of the Allies.

In the meantime, Wurm had succeeded in inducing the King of Prussia to take over the blockade of the northern front of Landau. The troops employed by the Austrians on this occasion were drawn from their positions on the 19th, only Field-Marshal Lieutenant Spleny with four battalions, four Frei-Companies, nine Escadrons remained behind to the south side. The Hessians left Offenbach in the evening at five o'clock, and bivouacked at Rultzheim the night of the 20th.

On the 20th at daybreak, the Wurmser Corps set out in five columns to move against the Weißenburg Lines. Dieselben leaned with the right wing on the Rhine near the fortified Lauterburg and formed a series of miles of longitude (air line), which ran directly on the southern bank of the Lauter. The left wing was strengthened by the Weissenburg fortress, and then, in a somewhat reversed position, ended in the mountains from the heavily fortified Taubenberg. This position was very strong in itself, but the extensive bee-forest, situated in the middle and the right wing, allowed the attacker a covert approach to the main position.

In order, therefore, not to be attacked unexpectedly, the French had Oberfeldherr pushed a strong advanced guard to the heights up against Bergzabern. In addition, a series of defensive sections had been established by means of jumps and jogging, which was traversed by numerous swampy brooks

Wurmser's company, with barely 30,000 men of about 40-50,000 to attack strong Rheinarms in a fortified position, which is too wide for them, must be described as daring. Probably he reckoned on two factors which would have to favor him. Once the demoralization of the opposing troops, well known to him, and the inability of the leader; And, most likely, he hoped, by his bold Lorgehen, to encourage the Prussian army leadership. The sending of an assault column of only four battalions and two escadrons through the mountains against the enemy's left flank, may not be explained by the fact that the small band was separated from the other Austrian columns by the French advanced guard, which stood north of Ober-Otterbach.  Thus dependent on the support of the Duke of Brunswick, who was about four miles from Weißenburg at Pirmasens. But in this, Wurmser misunderstood the duke; It was impossible to move to a so daring, unmethodic warfare. In addition, Wurmser had the misfortune of provoking the unwillingness of the King of Prussia to send the report of his attack intended for the 20th to Prussian headquarters only at eleven o'clock in the evening.

This attack was at first directed only against the advanced positions of the French; it took place in five columns, of which we have already spoken; The 2nd and 3rd, twelve battalions, twenty-one escadrons, turned against the French avant-garde, and remained on the heights of Dierbach and Freckenfeld. The 4th column, where Wurm himself was, six and a half battalions, eight escadrons, and the fifth, four battalions, six escadrons, were to be found in the Bienwald itself, between it and the Rhine1.

1) See special map: Weißenburger Line and Bienwald.
While the latter, without much resistance, had reached Wörth, the 4th column had to fight violently. It consisted of the Hessian Hussars, three divisions of Leopold Hussars, a division of Seresan Redcoats, a company of the Serbian Free Corps Michailowicz, Jäger-Corps, Hessian Light Infantry Battalion Lenz, a Battalion Emigrant “le Noble " which marched in the order mentioned, which followed as a reserve: the infantry regiment Samuel Gyulay, the twelve-pounder battery, and the Frei-Battalion Gyulay.

The column formed at four o'clock, and marched at five o'clock from the bivouac at Rultzheim.
She reached Rheinzabern, crossed the Erlenbach in the village, and then debuted on the road to Lauterburg. But hardly had the tip of the column scarcely shown itself, when a position of heavy artillery showed the proximity of the adversary at the same time as the withdrawing riders. The cavalry hurried to clear the defilee and form a left-hand side of the road.

The Jäger and Seresans threw themselves on the right into the Hatzenbühler Forest, and now a stubborn battle was fought against the opponent; At last he succeeded in throwing him over the Otterbach and Jockgrim, and seven guns fell into the hands of the Hessian Jägers and the Austrian hussars. At ten o'clock in the morning the battle was decided, and now the Hessian hussars were able to proceed again, in order to clear Hagenbach to Hessebach. The enemy had left this area altogether. In the afternoon, at five o'clock, the light troops were recalled, and the 4th and 5th columns united at Wörth.

The Headquarters was in the latter place. Outpost: Hessian and Leopold Hussars, as well as Bataillon Lenz.

The Jäger Battalion had been sent back to Rheinzabern to pour bullets, as the Austrian ammunition did not fit into their rifles. The infantry battalion of Lenz had been helped by the handing over of 8,000 cartridges of the Imperialists.

On the 21st, the French were offensive. The bulk of the division in Lauterburg, ten battalions, six escadrons, eight guns, advanced over Hagenbach against the troops battling at Wörth before daybreak.

Warned by the reports, they were ready to receive them by a counter-attack. The cavalry gathered to the left of the road, while the Hessian infantry proceeded with an Austrian battery of six guns to the right. The French mounted their artillery by the road behind a marshy ditch, and tried to penetrate under the fire of the guns with infantry and cavalry. The Hessian and Leopold hussars approached the latter, who, without waiting for the clash, fled into the forest.

In the meantime, an energetic battle had begun to relax west of the road. The Hussars withdrew into cover, only the flanking under Saber-junker Scheffer remained at the enemy. The Austrian commander led the emigrants to Pforz, to win the enemy's right flank, and then ordered them to follow the regiment and the free Corps Gyulay. The Emigrants, driven by the Austrian military journal, as well as Jomini, were forced into a very unfavorable position, from which they had only the energetic intervention of three companies, Samuel Gyulay, and the addition of the reserve regiment.

The Hessian records do not report anything about this occurrence, but leaves this is explained by the fact that the Hessians were fighting only on the right wing and of the events on the left wing did not notice anything. After a long standing struggle, the French sent for their battery to be driven off, and sought to mask this maneuver by the advance of a cavalry division. Scheffer, who swiftly opposed it, discovered, however, their plan, and informed Captain Hegemann, the temporary leader of the infantry battalion of Lenz, of the enemy's withdrawal. The battalion now ran across a forest meadow against the battery. Although some infantrymen succeeded in reaching the guns and cutting off the horses.  The Hessians were first thrown back into the forest, and only then did they succeed in capturing the above-mentioned five guns, while the other three fell into the hands of the emigrants.

Although the guns had to be handed over to the Austrian artillery, Schreiber hastened to auction the horses and to distribute the money among the light infantry. Only one of the guns captured the day before by the Jäger Corps came to Hesse, when the staff captain of Münchhausen secretly removed the eight-pounder from Rheinzabern, and was soon transported to Hanau in a ship hidden under fruit.

While the battalion Lenz and the Frei Corps continued the persuit to the south end of the forest, the Hessian Husaren Regiment was sent directly from the battlefield to Freckenfeld, where the Jäger Corps of Rheinzabern had also been marched, and where both the brigade General of Mezarosch. In the evening, the troops of the 4th column had moved to Buechelberg, a birch in the middle of the Bienwald. The forest was now owned by the Allies; On the other hand, the French left wing was in its advanced position.

The activities of the Hessian troops were acknowledged by the order of the day of the 21st:

"Order. The main quarters of Büchelberg on 21 August 1793.

For the services rendered so willingly and untiringly by all the Hesse-Cassel peoples, not only the special satisfaction and the praiseworthy and praiseworthy praise are hereby confirmed, but also the most binding thanks. In the same way, in consideration of their lack of vivre, they now receive on each obligatory man a pound of beef which they have received from the direction.

Signed Count von Wurmser, Field Marshal. "

Meanwhile the enterprises of Wurm had not received much recognition at Prussian headquarters. The Austrian plan of operations was rejected; new proposals were expected from Vienna, and the King would not enter into any widespread ventures until the latter had arrived; but he would support the attack of Wurmser, which had been undertaken without his consent as a daring caricature.

While an unsuccessful change of court took place between the headquarters, and Wurmser, on the one hand, was assailed by the Austrian minister, Count Lehrbach, and by the commander of the Austrian army in the Netherlands, Duke Josiah of Saxony-Coburg to expel the Austrians from the conquered positions and to regain the connection with Landau. An attack of the 2nd and Oolonne against the position at Steinfeld, which had been carried out on the 25th, and the village of Schaidt in the hands of the allies, showed that a frontal attack by the weak Austrian forces could not lead to any result.

Wurmser, who had first drawn up 6000 men from the right bank of the Rhine, and had ordered the troops to move in the position, whereby the center of gravity moved more to the right wing, hoping to get to his goal by avoiding it. Dieselbe was attacked by inadequate forces, 3500 men under General von Pejacsevich, and failed, in spite of the heroism of the leader and the troops with whom they asserted five days in the flank of the enemy, against daily attacks of overpowering.

On the 14th of September, they had to retreat, and, with the loss of thirty-one officers, and 680 of their own men.

In the center and on the left wing of Wurm's position there were also constant battles. In spite of the rage with which the French troops, who were mostly drunk, called upon “Landau or Death,” their attacks on the tenacity and resistance of the well-disciplined and trained troops failed, and brought about a further demoralization of the French army But they rarely had the opportunity to intervene, and they were at Freckenfeld until the 27th, and on this day they were transferred to Dierbach with Wurmser's headquarters.

On the 31st they were given orders to occupy the village of Shaidt, where they found a division of the 2nd battalion of Slavonians; They formed the left wing of the Mezarosch brigade, and kept in touch with the outposts of the Hotze Brigade under Colonel Kowasewich, first with the Hessian Jäger-Corps, which was on the way from Buechelberg. The former village was under the guns of a French battery (sixteen-pounders) near Gross-Steinfeld and was therefore not a pleasant stay. On the 2nd of September, the crew was forced to leave the camp temporarily, and to store it behind it.

On the 7th, as well as on the 8th, 9th, 10th, attacks against the Hessian Jäger-Corps took place, but were, like a defeat attempted on the eleventh, with little loss by the same, without the hussars involved in the forest battles. On the 17th the news had arrived of the victory which the Duke of Braunschweig had won at Pirmasens on the 14th, by rejecting the attack from a part of the Moselle Army, the Corps des Vosges; For this, as well as for the taking of le Quesnoy in the Netherlands, on the 19th a joy fire was to be made.

But this was not the case, as the French on this day attempted the last and decisive attack. Already at five o'clock in the morning, the battle was kindled; At first, attempts were made against the left wing of Wurmser in the Bienwalde. In front of Lauterburg, the battle ended in the morning of the French, but the brigade's high position was difficult. In the afternoon, the French batteries at Gross-Steinfeld opened a fierce fire on Schaidt; The village was fired on fire and the Hussars and Slavonians were forced to leave their storage space behind the village. At this moment, enemy cavalry believed to be able to use the right wing of the Hotze Brigade, the Hessian Jäger-Corps. But the hussars watched sharply barely attacked the opponent to the attack, as they swerved and approached him. The French horsemen were thrown back in their tracks, closely followed by the hussars; They had already approached the first batteries when they were hit by an onslaught of grape shot hail that they were thrown back.

As a result of this unsuccessful attack, the Jäger battalion, whose flank had been surrendered, withdrew, and soon the retreat of the whole Brigade took place. Strikingly, however, the French did not pursue, and so in the evening it was possible to occupy the old positions again.

The Hussars' regiment, however, bivouacked farther back at Freckenfeld, the actual headquarters of Wurmser. The loss in the attack amounted to two dead, nine wounded.

The cavalier von Resius, whose arm had been crushed, died at Rheinzabern on the 4th of October.

The regiment was relocated to Minfeld on the 21st and remained there until the 12th of October. During this period, the Prussian army carried out movements which considerably improved the position of the Austrian Corps. The second Austrian operation plan had arrived, and held that the Prussian army was to support the attack of Wurmser against the Weißenburg Lines. Therefore, the Prussian army had been advancing against the Moselle army, strengthened by the armies of the General von Knobelsdorf (twelve-and-half battalions, fifteen escadrons), drawn from the region of Luxembourg, and on the 26th, 27th, and 28th, From Bliescastel, Neuhornbach and St. Jngbert. As a result, the direct connection between the French Rhine and the and the Duke of Braunschweig thought he might be able to strategically advance Neundreiviertel battalions and fifteen escadrons through the mountains to a distance of one and a half miles to the left wing of the French Rhine army to Lembach and Matstall’s Left flank.

Although these troops were to arrive there only on the 14th of October, Wurmser, assuming the moral effect of their advance, decided to attack with his troops on the 13th.

The strength of the French army of the Rhine1 was said to have amounted to 51,590 men, while Wurmser, with only 43,185 men, attacked the famous defensive position. The French were distributed into so many redoubts and jumps that a strong offensive offered great advantages. The attack of the Austrians was to take place in seven columns.

1) Austria Military-Magazine: Volume 4, issue 8, page 131

On the evening of the 12th the Hessian Hussars advanced (in the Austrian report two Escadrons, with 271 horses), to the 3rd column under General von Hotze, which bivouaced in the Bienwald, and still four lines, a Frei-Battalion, three Escadrons Palatine Chevauxlegers, four Escadrons Archduke Leopold Hussars , Two Escadrons Waldeck Dragoons.

The Hessian Hussars regiment was led by Colonel-Lieutenant-Prince Solms Braunfels, as Colonel Schreiber was appointed to Count Wurmser, and took part in the attack. In a thick fog, Hotze's troops advanced through the forest, and stood at an early morning at the Bienwaldmühle, the signal for attack, at 4:30 am; Close behind the advanced guard infantry the 1st Division Archduke Leopold and the Hessian Hussars as well as the Waldeck Dragoons.

Three canopies were the sign that the infantry had broken with the cry of "Maria Theresia." The Bienwaldmühle was taken quickly, and the struggle for the proper jumps continued on the right bank of the Lauter river.

While the latter continued, the hussars discovered a furth above, and the infantry made the access to it. And unexpectedly the Calvary appeared, especially feared by the French, between the jumps. Now the courageous French recruits overthrown, they cleared the fortifications, let three guns fall, and fled in all directions, closely followed by the dragoons and hussars. The Hessians attacked the road to Weißenburg, the Leopold Hussars turned against Lauterburg. Eleventh, the Frei battalion Gyulay, the latter the Kaiser's infantry regiment, followed on both sides Waldeck dragoons took part in the persuit. In the meantime, Schleithal's hostile reserves rose and involved the now largely surrendered mass of the column in a sustained battle. The cavalry, returning from the attack, was ordered to observe the two roads mentioned.

There was still no news of the success of the other columns; on both sides only the rifle and gunfire sounded, showing a serious struggle on all sides. The two columns, which had proceeded to the left of the Hotze, had Lauterburg as their object, and the Dubois, which was standing there, caused a simultaneous threat in the front and back to the retreat upwards to Schleithal and Weißenburg. At about 1 o'clock these troops unexpectedly attacked the Escadron Leopold Hussars, which had advanced to Lauterburg, and attacked the Regiment Kaiser at the same time in the front and the flank.

The noise of this struggle had the Hessian Hussars, who had a Escadron Waldeck-Dragoons under Rittmeister Count Spindler attended the road to Weißenburg, had already been drawn to the attention of Colonel-Lieutenant Borschuss of the Waldeck Dragoons, blown back in the long gallop, came to the conclusion that the enemy had thrown the Austrian infantry and cavalry, and that he would immediately break into the lines.  The hussars were soon on horseback, broke into trains on the left and trotted towards the French. As soon as the terrain permitted, the escadrons were formed again; Scarcely had this been done, when the stream of the Austrian infantry and cavalry, had left, followed by three closed French battalions and some cavalry. At the sight of the four Escadrons, the Austrians rallied, and the majority of the Waldeck dragoons joined the deploying regiment, which was advancing against the French infantry. A battalion-decharge could not stop the dashing onslaught; in a few minutes the enemy dispersed, and the French flee to Schleithal with the loss of guns, ammunition wagons and artillery horses. About 300 are said to have fallen victim to the sabers of the hussars and dragoons. The enemy cavalry had left their infantry and did not accept the attack.

The bounty of the Hessian Hussars consisted of a flag, five horses, and 100 men of infantry. As a loss they had killed two men, one man and three horses wounded, and two men as missing.

The columns, which were warm on the right of the Hotze brigade, had been in a difficult state, but, after obstinate struggle, had taken the advanced fortifications, and thrown back the Frenchmen at Weissenburg. At five o'clock in the afternoon, Count Wurms had united this part of the Austrian Corps and led him to attack the town and the Geisberg.

Although the French commander had refused to surrender, his troops cleared the city even before the Austrians attacked, and they conquered only the Geisberg. In the night, however, the entire French army withdrew completely to Hagenau.
The allies bivouacked on the battlefield. From all sides the share which Hessian hussars had in the success of the day was fully recognized. The Landgraf awarded the Lieutenant-Colonel-Lieutenant Prinz to Sulm and Major von Lehsten the Militair Order of Merit, and carried Lieutenant Keitel to the Staff Rittmeister, "because of the courageous behavior shown by the Hussars' Regiment at the capture of the Weißenburger Line." Cornets Sheldon and Volte were promoted to lieutenants.

An officer of the imperial Austrian army spoke in a letter written for the purpose of publication as follows:

"He thought it his duty to make it known to the public how well the Hessian Hussars' regiment, under Lieutenant-Colonel-Prince Solms-Braunfels, had shown the 13th of October in the conquest of the Kronweissenburg lines, and That it was not only the first division of Leopold-Hussar, but the first attack on the fortress, but that in the last assault, which the French exercised on every side of the regiment, "Kaiser-Iinfantry, With such rage, that the latter had been completely dispersed, and that 300 Frenchmen had been hewn into the frying pan, and this incident was specially worth mentioning, for if this attack had failed the hussar, the victory so brilliant would not be without great loss. "

The Austrian army was too fragmented by the attack in seven columns, in order to be able to pursue immediately, and the Prussian detachments were not intervened, and so the French army could manage its retreat behind the moors without great loss.

The Hotze Brigade, where the Hessian Hussars were, had broken up at eight o'clock in the morning; They followed the French in a southerly direction, and had reached Stundweiler when the brigade received orders to stay there.

Wurmser, who received news of the departure of the enemy on the 14th, had followed the main road on the Hagenauer Straße to Sulz. In the evening, at 10 o'clock, the brigade was brought up to the main; the Hessian hussars, on the other hand, advanced to Ober-Betschdorf on the edge of the Hagenau forest, and from this point came into contact with the advanced guard who had advanced under General Mezarosch to Surburg.

On the 15th, 16th, and 17th, the main army remained in this position; Wurmser accepted the congratulations from the Duke of Brunswick, who had advanced with a detachment to Woerth; A hymm of praise was and  Victoria shot was performed.

On the 17th Mezarosch marched to Hagenau.  From the right bank of the Rhine Corps, the Prince of Waldeck, advanced over Drusenheim to Offendorf on the Rhine. The French, thus threatened in the right flank, did not assert the positions behind the morass, but instead dodged to the rear, only a division of all the weapons under General Ferra remained on the north bank at Weyersheim.

Mezarosch, who on the eighteenth with the advanced guard, without knowledge the terrain, proceeded to Brumath and was attacked surprisingly in his left flank.  He swiftly threw the Hessian light infantry and the Jäger-Corps, as well as the battalion of Olivier Valais, against the heights behind which the enemy had concealed himself. It succeeded in stunning them until Mezarosch formed his other troops, but the Hessians suffered very much from the fire of a French battery, until the cavalry, in the flank, was seized by a division cavalry, and driven out with the loss of an eighteen pounder and ammunition cart. According to a report in this attack, Hessian hussars were said to have acted, but this seems to be due to a misunderstanding, since they belonged to the Hotze Brigade, which had been dispatched on the same day by the main army, via Hagenau and Buchsweiler to Palatinate; At five o'clock in the afternoon, at the heights of Pfaffenhofen, two and a half miles north-west of the above-mentioned field of battle, ended.

Mezarosh was freed from the unfavorable situation by the intervention of the main army, which continued the march from Hagenau to Brumath.

While the bulk of the Wurmser corps had a camp on the north bank of the Anger near Brumath, and Prince Waldeck was standing near Drusenheim on the Rhine, Hotze broke away from Pfaffenhofen on the 20th of March at noon, and reached Buchsweiler in the evening. He had his troops stationed on the heights to the west of this little town, and led troops to the mountains.

On the next day, patrols who which recognized this region were sent to the mountainous regions, which was still little known and inaccessible.

Wurmser ordered Condo's Corps to connect the main army with Hotze to Hochfelden.

The Duke of Braunschweig had not passed the Prussian troops beyond Woerth. On October 24th, with the bulk of his troops, he returned to Eschweiler, south-west of Pirmasens, leaving only General von Kleist north of Wörth.

Once again disunity had set in between the commanders. Wurmser wanted to relate winter quarters to Anger. Fort Bauban was besieged; in Strasbourg there existed a royalist conspiracy, which the city promised to surrender; Therefore it seemed to Wurm especially necessary to go there with his troops. He had thought of the siege of Landau, Lützelstein, and Bitsch, to the Prussians.

To the Duke, such an unmethodic approach was unsympathetic; The role assigned to its troops, as well as the prospect, all of Alsace in the Austrian hands, in the present political situation particularly unpleasant.

For this reason, he refused to grant the assistance necessary to the execution of his offensive plans, and left him to accomplish what he could do with his own resources, and resolved to refer as soon as possible to winter quarters at the Kaiserslautern.

Wurm also continued his offensive procedure. First it was Hotze who was to direct his attack on the left wing detachment of the French army of the Rhine (a brigade which stood at Zabern). Before the latter, however, proceeded to carry out the attack, he set off on the 22nd. At seven o'clock in the morning, he joined the battalion with two battalions of the infantry regiment Lasch and the Hessian Hussars to Nieder-Sulzbach, where the paths from Lützelstein and Lichtenberg merged to turn their backs against the activities of the garrisons of those fortresses or detachments of the Mosel Army. Schreiber encamped south of the village; A company of Lascy-infantry, an officer, three officers, a trumpeter, thirty horses from the Hussars' Regiment formed the outposts and watched the streets. On the 23rd, Hotze St. Jean des Choux arrived without being able to make the decision. On the twenty-fourth he renewed the attack, when he was informed that a division of the Moselle army had come to help his opponent. Soon after, their intervention against his flank felt, and he now went into the defensive. He maintained himself in the position near Buchsweiler with the help of reinforcements, which Wurm sent him. Among these were the Hessian light infantry, who arrived on the 26th at Hotze, and on the 27th replaced the two battalions of Lasch. Thus the Hessian corps was again united under the command of Schreiber. It occupied quarters on the road to Lützelstein, Jäger Weiterswiller, infantry battalions Ober-, Husaren Nieder-Sulzbach.
On the extreme left wing of his lineup, Wurm surged forward. An energetic attack brought the village of Wanzenau, surrounded by hillsides and deep ditches, into the hands of the prince of Waldeck. But this success could not be exploited at all, since the above-mentioned conspiracy in Strasbourg was discovered before Wurm had been able to make use of it by a bold hand-stroke on this fortress.

Since then, he remained on the defensive and only operated the siege of Fort Vauban. On the French side, on the other hand, thanks to the efforts of the Convents-Deputirten, new life came into the war. The gaps of the armies were filled by the masses, two youthful, energetic generals, Hoche and Pichegru, placed at the head of the armies, and recommended a simple but appropriate plan of operation. The action of the two armies was to lead to the separation of the Prussians and Austrians and thus to the relief of Landau.

The siege of this fortress on the part of the Prussians made no progress, while Fort Vauban fell into the hands of the Austrians on the 16th of November. 

As the weather had become very rough, the Duke of Braunschweig resolved to move the winter quarters around Kaiserslautem. In the middle of November his troops moved away.  Although Wurm lost any prospect of timely support, Wurm wanted to make his winter quarters at Hagenau and leave the front groups at Zom.

The French leaders, however, did not yet think of peace; On 17 November Hoche, with the 40,000 strong Moselle army, broke up against Kaiserslautem, while the Rhine army under Pichegru attacked the Wurmser’s outposts before he could complete the entrenchments of the main position. The strength of the armies of the Rhine was increased to sixty thousand men by the fact that all the men of the League, relieved of the newly-raised men, had joined the army. The attack was directed against the whole line of the Wurmser line, against the center and left wing only with weak forces; An oppressive power concentrated Pichegru against Hotze.

The position of Buchsweiler was extensively attacked by the south-east and south-west, and Hotze was able to hold on to the evening with difficulty. At the same time strong French forces advanced on the Lützelsteiner Strasse against the detachment clerk, a part of which developed in the front, while the other part pushed along the mountains north, and Ingweiler on the road to Bitsch threatened Lichtenberg. There was only Lieutenant Volte with thirty hussars and fifty infantrymen. The light infantry battalion was directed to the right flank to the Ingweiler Forest, and maintained itself here, till it had to give way to the eastward. Now the hussars and Jägers also cleared the defended positions. The corps united at Nieder-Sulzbach, from where the tents and baggage were sent on to Pfaffenhofen then onto Buchsweiler. At four o'clock in the morning the retreat to Pfaffenhofen was made. The Hessian corps covered the right flank. The light infantry battalion, Lenz, who had disappeared as a consequence of a controversy or a misunderstood command, returned to the Corps under the protection of a thick fog.

By this backward movement of Hotze, the right flank of Wurmser was exposed, and he was compelled to retreat, though he had repulsed against the attacks. He moved to a position south of Hagenau, but the outposts of the Anger remained as long as they were worked on the entrenchment, and the right wing of them was bent back to Reichshofen.

Hotze encamped with his corps at the latter place; the Hessian detachment at Merzweiler was connected with the Great. On the following day (20 November) the attacks on this wing were not repeated, the troops were transferred to cantons, the Hesse to the extreme right wing, the Jäger and Escadron Lehsten Ober-, Bataillon Lenz, and two Escadrons Niederbronn1.

1) See special map: Surrounded by Wörth.
The rest should not last long; As early as the 25th, Major von Lehsten reported the advance of important forces from Ingweiler. There were about 12,000 men, the divisions Bourcy and Ferino, with numerous artillery, which opposed the position of Hotze. Schreiber immediately sent his adjutant, Rittmeister Keitel, to Hotze, to report to him, and, as the attack seemed particularly directed against the right wing, to ask for support, especially artillery.

Hotze, who expected himself to be attacked, refused, and so the Hessians were dependent on their own strength. Lehsten with the Jäger Corps and his Escadron faced the enemy in front of Oberbronn, while Schreiber, with the battalion Lenz and the other two squadrons, as well as the two light guns of the Jäger battalion of Niederbronn, came to the enemy.

The battle did not lead to any decision, the French brought five heavy guns into the fire, and pushed the Hessian back to the heights between Ober- and Niederbronn, where they remained under the fire during the night.

The fight was renewed the next day. In spite of Bourcy's plea, the Convents-Deputirten present demanded that he should attack not only the right wing, but the entire front of Hotze. The attack of the center against Reichshofen failed completely. The infantry's assault on the left bank of the Zinz left the attack of the infantry; two Escadrons of the Mack Currassiers rode the Weichenden, two French cavalry regiments, eleven hussars, and two chaffeurs escadrons , Which the infantry sought to dislodge, could not resist the impact of the Cuirassiers, Bourcy himself fell. Fortunately, the French were against the right wing, which were supported by no gun and no entrenchments. Step by step, the Hessians surrendered, but they asserted themselves on the heights west of the brook (Schwarzbach) flowing from Jägerthal to Reichshofen, which finally separated the outposts.

On the following days the attacks on the part of the French were continued, but more and more of them began to languish, and the allies advanced again.

On the 27th, the Hesse resumed Niederbronn for a short time. Since the 28th, the advanced pickets succeeded in asserting themselves on the right bank of the Schwarzbach; But they were unable to penetrate, as some of the fortresses on the heights of Niederbronn assured the French the preservation of the land they had won. While the outposts continued here, the news that the French Moselle Army had attacked the Prussians at Kaiserslautem, and had been defeated by them on the 29th, 30th, and the 1st of December in three-day battles.

But since the Duke of Braunschweig did not take advantage of his victory in any way, instead of pursuing it, remaining in his position, and soon moving his troops to winter quarters, this victory did not alter the position of the Austrian Corps. High could even send twelve battalions of his defeated army to the reinforcement of the Rhine Army.

Again, Wurm saw himself confined to his own strengths, and these also weakened more and more every day, while the troops of the adversary strengthened in number as well as in moral gains.

Since the daily outpost contests did not make any decision, Hotze decided to try to recover the lost terrain by an attack. On the 3rd of December, at two o'clock in the morning, Schreiber received orders to take the battery on the heights west of Reichshofen, to the south of Niederbronn, which had often made the outpost of the Miirten very difficult.

At four o'clock in the morning, the Infantry-Battalion Lenz, thirty Jägers, eighty hussars, the old and new field guard (Lieutenant Bolle and Cornet of Laroche). Rittmeister Keitel with two Escadrons Leopold Hussars, a Escadron of Kaiser-Carabiniers, two Grenadier Companies, and three guns, including a howitzer.

The guns, on the other side of the stream, were covered by a grenadier company, some Jägers and hussars. The other troops crossed the stream and approached the camp, as far as this was possible.

As soon as daylight permitted the artillerymen to recognize the encirclement of the enemy's camp, a shot of cannon signaled the attack. In full speed, the grenadiers and Hessian infantrymen stormed up the hill, two battalions, which were standing there in the camp, were burst in the first attempt. The cavalry threw itself on the right flank of the battery, which was taken immediately. One of the guns fell to Lieutenant Bolte, the six others to the Leopold Hussars, a flag, three ammunition wagons, an officer, and eight men of prisoners were the prey of the infantry.

The French were now resurging in Nieder- and Oberbronn, supported by a battery standing between both places.

Schreiber had his guns raised and, after his troops had been gathered, renewed the attack. Niederbronn was soon vacated by the French, and Oberbronn after a short but bloody struggle. A four-pound gun of the battery just mentioned fell into the hands of the Hessians (Lieutenant Hausen, Battailon Lenz), the enemy was traced to Zinsweiler. While the Austrian support troops returned with their guns to the greater part of the Hotze-Corps, Schreiber gathered up the Jägers and hussars and resumed the earlier position between Ober- and Niederbronn.

On the 5th, in the morning, at 11 am, the French began a new attack with numerous artillery, which the Hessians had to yield towards evening.
Schreiber maintained himself during the night in Niederbronn, occupying the village with infantry, and establishing two detachments of forty men at suitable points. The hussars bivouacked behind the place. He successfully defeated a night attack and then quartered his people at 4 o'clock in the village. On the following day, the French renewed the attack, and on the order of General Hotze, who also withdrew his artillery north of Neichshofen, Schreiber, sharply pushed by the enemy, retreated to the position at the Schwarzbach.

A battalion of the Austrian Infantry-Regiment Huff occupied the village of Jägerthal, thereby giving the Hessen’s support on the right wing.

The French repeated their daily attacks. Reinforced on the 8th by the Division of the Camponnier of the Moselle Army, they expelled the battalion Huff from Jägerthal. Dasselbe was now ordered to occupy a hill at Fröschweiler. Thus the Hessians again formed the right wing of the Wurmser Corps, and were in the front and flank of the unrelenting attacking Frenchmen.

Even though the losses from the enemy were generally minor, the continual struggles, the inconsistencies of the weather which the men and horses had been subjected to during the numerous bivouacs in the late autumn months, had greatly diminished the ranks of Hesse. Schreiber had presented this situation to General Count Wurmser, and obtained a replacement of his troops from their postponed post. It was not in Wurmser's power, however, to grant any real peace. The Moselle army under Hoche had arrived, this general appointed as chief of the Rhine army, the best means of securing a cooporation of both French armies. The Grangeret Division had crossed the Vosges near Buesch, and advanced on the road to Weissenburg, while the Jacob Division, which had followed the Division of Taponnier, and had soon joined its left wing, advanced from Niederbronn through the mountains towards Weissenburg.

An obstacle, which stretched from Matstall to Lembach and was occupied by Count Lichtenberg with three battalions of Darmstadt and six guns, was to block both roads.

Since the troops assigned to it were unable to cope with this task, Colonel-Schreiber was ordered to march there and strengthen the post. In the night of the 10th to the 11th he arrived at Matstall, where he was quartered. The hussars took no part in the obstinate struggles which, on the 13th, 14th, and 15th, especially the position of Lembach, relieved the terrain, which was unfavorable to their use. On the 15th, Prussian troops unexpectedly arrived, whom the Duke of Braunschweig himself had brought. With the aid of these, the Hessians maintained themselves until the 19th, when they were completely relieved of Prussian troops.

The Duke of Brunswick, when he recognized the opponent's intention to separate the two armies, was himself stripped to make a joint operation. Prussian troops, as we have said, broke the detachments of the Wurmser corps, a common attack was resolved, but not executed. The rain, which served as a pretext for the hosts to stop the planned advance, did not prevent the French from attacking the Austrians vigorously.

From the 18th to the 22nd, according to a report by the Prussian General Staff Capitain of Camptz nothing abnormal happened. It is only in the case of the campaign which now appears that nothing happened, that no troops were called upon to prevent the invasion of the army by the French.

On the 22nd, after the last columns of the Moselle army, of which only one division had been left opposite Prussia, arrived at Reichshofen, the decisive blow of the French troops against the troops of Hotze took place.

Fröschweiler and Wörth were torn away, and in the night he also cleared the last position, which blocked the French from the way to Weißenburg. Thus, the flank of Wurmser was exposed. It was with difficulty that the Austrian column succeeded in defending Whiteburg before the enemy occupied it. The Allies' advance, arranged for the 26th, was also given up to the announcement of the appearance of hostile forces in the Annweiler Valley. Instead, Hoche attacked. After a bloody defensive battle, Wurmser left the Weißenburger Lines and gave way to the position of Freckenfeld. Now the hope of a happy twist had vanished among the two leaders; In spite of all the objections of the Duke, Wurmser led his corps, which, since 18 November, had thirteen generals, 4032 men, 1054 horses dead, missing and lost, but also still
Inclusive Blessirte had an emergency  reinforcement of 14,515 men, back across the Rhine.

The Duke of Brunswick lifted up the blockade of Landau and moved to winter quarters between Worms and Bingen.
The Hessians had no longer participated in the last act of this drama. According to the numerous reports by Schreiber on the bad condition of the Corps, the Landgraf had urgently demanded the return, and Wurmser, after consultations from of the Duke of Braunschweig, finally relented.

After their detachment on the 19th, the Hussars had been situated in Pfaffenbronn, but the infantry still occupied the post at the Kuhbrücke near Lembach until the 21st.

Colonel Schreiber had gone ill to Sulz near Weissenburg on the 19th, Colonel-Lieutenant Prinz Solms-Braunfels had taken over the leadership of the regiment and corps.

On the 21st the Corps moved to Altenstadt near Weissenburg; On the 22nd to Neuburg am Rhine, followed by a long train of wagons, on which the sick and wounded who had so far been stationed in Weißenburg; On the 23rd across the Rhine to Bulach and Beiertheim, immediately south of Carlsruhe, where they remained for the time being.

The losses of the regiment in the years 1792 and 1793 to the dead and disabled were:
Fallen: Rittmeister Resius (1793), Lieutenant von Starckloff (1792), two Unterofficiers, eleven men.
Died: a unterofficier, a trumpeter, eleven men.
Wounded: Cornet Bolte (1793), one sergeant, two noncommissioned officers , six men.
Translated Extract from: Geschichte des königlich preussischen 2. hessischen Husaren-Regiments Nr. 14 und seiner hessischen Stammtruppen 1706-1886

Rhine Campaign 1793.pdf

1 comment:

  1. Warfare is a fascinating subject. Despite the dubious morality of using violence to achieve personal or political aims. It remains that conflict has been used to do just that throughout recorded history.

    Your article is very well done, a good read.