Tuesday, August 1, 2017

The Period from 1794 to the Occupation of the Electorate in 1806

On January 1, 1794, the Landgrave's wing commander handed over to the corps of the Hessian light troops' order to return, which was supplemented on the 4th by the news that the fortress of Rheinfels was destined to be the march destination.

On the second, the Corps broke camp, marched through Carlsruhe, and at eight o'clock at eight o'clock, at the castle, before the Margrave of Baden,  and reached Weiher and Stettfeld, north of Bruchsal; On the third it marched to Diehlheim, Horrenberg, Balzfeld; On the 4th via Heidelberg to Dossenheim and Ladenburg a. d. Mountain Road; On the 5th day of rest; On the 6th Auerbach, Zwingenburg; On the 7th Pfungstadt and Ebersstadt, south Darmstadt; On the 8th day of rest; On the 9th through Darmstadt en parade before the landgrave from Hesse-Darmstadt to Langen and surrounding; On the 10th through Frankfurt to Preungesheim, Eschersheim, Eckenheim; On the 11th day of rest; The city of Frankfurt sent the corps a present of beer, brandy, and tobacco. On the 12th the march was continued westwards until Hefterich, Ehlhalten, Schloßborn, reached Langenschwalbach on the 13th, and on the 14th was day of rest. On the 15th, the Hessians advanced into the cathedrals designated for them in the Graffchaft cathedral arch, Hussars: Escadron (scribe) Nastätten, second Escadron (Prince Solms) Nieder- Walmenach and Reitzenhain, third Escadron (Lehsten) Ober-Walmenach and Rettershaim.  The Jäger were transferred on the right bank of the Rhine to Bornich and Patersberg, and the Infantry Battalion Lenz was quartered on the left bank of the Rhine in Biberhain and Werlau. A commando from one officer, two officers, a trumpeter, twenty-four hussars was given to Pfalzfeld and Hausbach. At these places, which were situated at the height of the Hundsrück, Paths from St. Goar to Caftellan and from Boppard to Simmern. The commando was relieved every eight days.

If we look back at the political situation of 1793, we see first that the Landgraf of Hesse had endeavored to remove his troops from the theatre of war on the Middle Rhine and from the union with the Prussian-Austrian army.

He had signed a subsidy treaty with England, according to which, in April, eight thousand men, in August another 4000 men of Hessian troops, joined the English-Dutch army in the Netherlands.

Only the light troops corps had remained as a Hessian contingent to the Reich’s Army on the Middle Rhine.
Now the dismissal of this corps had been made possible by Oesterreich's acknowledgment that the Landgraf sufficed to fulfill his duty as a state of empire through the Hessian troops in English. As we have seen, the corps of light troops had, as we have seen, been transferred into the gravely cathedral arches, which were most exposed to hostile attacks. On February 25, 1794, the Corps was placed on a state of peace, but no significant leave of absence was made, since the regiment, according to a March report, had 254 horses. In the same month it was transferred to Hesse in Marburg, and distributed to the border towns of Frankenberg, Wetter, Sterzhausen, Lohra; Only a small commander remained in Pfalzfeld.

In the meantime, warlike events took on an increasingly unfavorable course for the Allies. The armies, neglected by a small state of affairs, and their indecisive leaders, who were attached to systems, were unable to resist the unleashed national power of France and the attacks of the French armies which had always been renewed in spite of all the defeats. In October, the Austrian troops were thrown back on the right bank of the river in the middle of the Rhine, and the Prussians voluntarily followed this movement, which had the result that the left bank of the Rhine, and thus also the Graffchaft Nieder- Katzenellnbogen, had French property. The commander of the fortress of Rheinfels, Hessian General Resius, handed over the fortress to the French without waiting for a serious attack.

While the latter were contented with these achievements in this battlefield, the struggle in the Netherlands was continued until January, with the result that the allies passed the country to the French as far as Ems.

Under these circumstances, forced by the necessity to protect itself against Russia, Prussia endeavored to establish troops on its eastern frontier, to make peace with the French republic. The Landgraf of Hesse, who saw the hopelessness of the allies' struggle, and who could only expect to see a disadvantage in the country, decided to follow the same method.

On April 5, 1795, Prussia concluded his peace with the French republic, acknowledging the same, and declaring that the latter retained the left bank of the Rhine. Hesse was included in this peace, and for the time being renounced the possession of the left Rhine and part of the Graffschaft cathedral arches, while France promised him the support of obtaining compensation from the domain of spiritual princes. A definite settlement of these conditions was postponed until the conclusion of the general peace.

On the news of this treaty England and Hesse announced the subsidy treaty, so that the troops in English pay could return to their fatherland at the end of November and would soon be reduced to peace.

 The Hussars' regiment, on the other hand, seems, however, not to have been reduced, if at all. Major von Lehsten was in commanded with his escadron into the Graffchaft Schaumburg, and his escadron report shows a budget of five officers, ten non-commissioned officers, barber, trumpeter, 150 common soldiers, and 161 horses;

Commanded: an officer, four officers, thirty-six congregations, forty horses;
To the service: four officers, six officers, a barber, a drummer, 112 common soldiers, ninety horses.

The actual reduction of the Hussars' regiment took place only in April 1795, but 135 men were on leave this month, but the horses were only gradually abolished. A report dated 1 May 1795 reads:

Nominal strength 367 horses,
Of which thirty horses are on leave (probably the horses have been given to individual persons on leave),
Twenty-five horses,
Eighty-five horses in Grebenstein,
Thirty-one horses abolished,
190 horses in Beberbeck and Sababurg.

The regiment of the regiment, which was at home in Grebenstein, consisted of three guards, three quartermasters, fifteen officers, four trumpeters, sixty common soldiers. He set up a constant guard from a non-commisioned officer, a carabinier, six men, with a post in front of the gate to Hofgeismar.

From the campaign had returned to officers:
Colonel-Lieutenant Prince Solms;
Major of Lehsten;
Chief of Staff, Kellerhaus, Ströbel, Keitel;
Lieutenant Bode, Grau, von Sheldon, Volte, Laroche von Starckenfels:
Cornet Scheffer.

Schreiber, who became a general in 1796, was so suffering as a result of the campaign that Prince Solms (1794 Colonel) had to lead the administration of the Regiment in 1796, 1797 and 1798. Solms, however, did not receive the Colonel-Lieutenant's pay until June 1797, while Lehsten, who was appointed Colonel-Lieutenant at the same time, continued the Majors' salary.

On October 22, 1795, the Prince Franz von Anhalt-Bernburg- Schaumburg was appointed as the youngest Chief Treasurer for the time being, with Cornet's salary, but was already released in September 1796. In 1799 Schreiber received the command post of Carlshafen and Colonel Prince Solms the regiment as a resting place. As far as the other changes were concerned, there had been a new addition since 1794: Rittmeister von Schmied (formerly in the regiment) of the Jäger Corps and Lieutenant von Lohberg (1799);
As well as the cornets of Nagel (1796-98), Asbrand (1796-99), Jaensen (1797), Rupprecht (1799) and Koch (1799), of whom the three former remained in the regiment only a few years. The requested Dimission received: Kellerhaus (1794) and Laroche von Starckenfels (1797); Bolte died (?) (1795). Bode (1797) and Grau (1799) were also promoted to lieutenants, Scheffer to the lieutenant (1797).

At the lower end, Brenner broke out in 1795, for whom Kroeschel became an auditor and quartermaster of the regiment; In 1798 Starckloff, Bechtel and Wiegand emerged as an escadron surgeon.

While North Germany enjoyed peace, the war in Southern Germany and Italy was continuing unceasingly.
In France, Napoleon Bonaparte had found the man who was able to convert the human material supplied by the masses to soldiers, and to lead them to victory.

Austria, repeatedly beaten and forced to the peace of Campo Fornno in 1797, renewed the struggle again before the emissaries of the states had been able to establish the future formation of the German empire. The peace of Luneville, 9 February 1801, gave the basis for negotiations with the German Reich. The Reichs-Deputations-Hauptschluss of November 23, 1802 secured Hesse the Kurwürde, and the peace agreement of 25 February 1803 granted him the Kurmainzisches Aemter and the free imperial city of Gelnhausen included in Hesse as compensation.

In May of 1803 the Landgraf accepted the electoral title and celebrated the acceptance of this title with great pomp. In the same year we find him head of the regiment.  At the same time a considerable increase was made in the electoral army.

he Hussars' regiment was placed on the strength of five squadrons, but for the time being they were built on the foot of thirty-eight horses. The one Escadron received Rittmeister von Schmied, the other apparently in vain, since Ströbel had become the chief of the body of Escadron at the time of the transfer.

The elector of Hesse was not to be long a factual one. Possession of his dignity. He could not win over the court, like most other German princes, the all-powerful ruler of France.

On the other hand, he often attracted Napoleon, both personally and through his political measures. Nevertheless, he believed he was able to assert himself on the throne by keeping himself neutral in the fighting which had broken out again in 1805.

Napoleon, however, waited only for the favorable moment to carry out his plans in Hesse. He did not consider himself bound by the wording of treaties; he saw in the well-known hostile sentiments of the Elector, in a few ambiguous measures, the reason enough for his action.

Austria had been defeated in 1805. Prussia, which in 1806 singled out the fight, saw its army destroyed at Jena and Auerstädt. In Germany there was no power which could have hindered Napoleon in the free exercise of his will. Nevertheless, he proceeded with great caution. At the end of October, 1806, Marshal Mortier moved down from the Main in the Fuldathal, King Louis Bonaparte from Holland through Westphalia via Warburg in Hesse.

All the Elector's inquiries about the purpose of these measures were evasively answered, and so long kept in doubt, and held by decisive measures until the French and Dutch troops had occupied Cassel's surrounding heights. On the 31st of October, between eleven and twelve o'clock, the French businessman gave a note in which Napoleon deferred the occupation of the Hessian Cassel states, the disarmament of the army, and the delivery of all war materials. The next morning, without entering into any negotiation, Mortier entered the town, which was no longer fortified and occupied only by about 1,000 men of Hessian troops.  The Elector escaped via Arolsen to Schleswig, from where he later went to Prague.

The Hessian troops on the Friedensfuß were disarmed and dismissed. The higher officers, as they refused to enter the newly formed regiments, were interned in Mainz. Among the soldiers, both in the delivery of arms and the horses of the departed, as well as in the attempt to recruit people for the new regiments, revolts and insurrections, which brought all Hesse uproar. But, owing to the French firm leadership and strict discipline, they could not succeed.

The quiet citizens, caused by the excesses committed by the soldiers, disarmed the rebels in most cities and established the order before the French Execution Commandos arrived.

Before we conclude, we must remember the changes that have occurred in the regiment since the beginning of the century; Especially the reinforcement on 5 Escadrons, the Officier-Corps had received a considerable increase.

Access: Colonel-Lieutenant von Schlotheim from the Dragoon Regiment Prince Friedrich (1801); Rittmeister von Stein of the Carabiniere Regiment (1803); Seconde Lieutenants Ludwig Count zu Sayn-Wittgenstein (1800), von Mollerus (1802), Baaker van Leuwen (1803), Kirsch (1803), Plessen (1804), Baumbach and Seebach from the Regiment Garde (1806); Cornet's Kremp von Freudenstein (1802), of Buttlar, Carl Count of Hessestein, Numers, Lendt, Hundertmark (1803), L. Scheffer (1804), Landsberg (1805) and Franke (1806). In the lower part: Escadrons-surgeon Flebbe (1801), Jhringk (1802), Count (1804), Regiment-Bereiterwille (1802), horse doctor Hofediez (1804).  Promotions: Colonel Prince to Solms 1801 as General Major, appointed chief of the regiment in May 1806; Colonel-Lieutenant von Lehsten (1800) and von Schlotheim (1806) to colonels; Rittmeister of Schmied (1801) and von Stein (1805) to Majors; Stabs-Rittmeister Bode (1803) and Grau (1806) to Rittmeister; Première Lieutenants von Sheldon (1800), E. Scheffer (1803), Rupvrecht - 1801 Sec.-Lt., 1803. Prem.-Lt. - (1805) to Staff Riders; Seconde-Lieutenants Count Wittgenstein (1803), Baaker van Leuwen (1805), cook - 1802 Sec.-Lt. -1806) to Premier Lieutenants; Cornet's Kremp von Freudenstein (1803), von Buttlar (1805), Count Hessestein, von Numers and von Lendt (1806) to Seconde-Lieutenants; Surgeon Carl Starckloff as a regimental surgeon (1800).

Departure: General Major and Chief Prince Solms (August 1806), Lieutenant von Voßberg (1801), Prem.-Lieut. Count Wittgenstein (1804), Sec. Lieut. von Mollerus (1804), of Plessen, and von Buttlar (1805), Cornet Jaensen (1800); Colonel von Lehsten to the Dragoon Regiment Prince Friedrich (1801), Stabs-Rittmeister Ströbel transferred to the Garnison Regiment Langenschwarz (1802). - Regimental surgeon Justus Starckloff (1800), Escadrons surgeon Bechtel (1801), Wiegand (1802) discharge; Cacron-surgeon Jhringk to the Regiment Guard-Grenadiere.

The ranking list of the Hussars' regiment follows, before the dismissal on 1 November 1806:
On November 1, 1806:
Uniform: light blue furs, yellow tollmanns with silver; White trousers
3. Escadron Grebenstein,
2. Escadron Jmmenhausen.
Canton: The most affluent subjects in all the provinces.
Chief:1 Sr. Kurfürst Wilhelm I.

1) Elector Wilhelm I. took over, as in the period from 1803 to May 1806, after discharge of the chefs: General Major Prince Solomon, as regiment chief.

We hereby take leave of the Hessian Hussars of the eighteenth century. We have seen that they fought almost in each of the campaigns on the side of the Prussian army, and took a glorious part in the struggles of the Seven Years War, as well as the Revolutionary War.

In this connection to a great power, which had a decisive voice in the council of nations, the reason was to be sought for the fact that the deeds of such a small army gained importance in history at all. In the course of this exposition, the great historical events and an interaction between them and the deeds of a rush of hussars had to be pointed out several times.

As in a diminished reflection, we have seen the fate of the Prussian army. The causes of his greatness and his decay have been seen, as they appear in the troops themselves. In the seven-year war, the urge to move forward Striving for independent action, always in the leadership as in the group.

In the revolutionary wars, schematizing calculations and indecisive waiting in the upper line can be seen, and it is felt that this tendency is also felt among the men by paralyzing the air of sullen acts. But in spite of the inhibiting influence we encounter in the portrayal of the Revolutionary Wars, many times, when the horseman, harboring the Hussars, showed himself in bold deeds, and showed what this troop could have done under other circumstances.

If we take a closer look at the use of the hussars, we see that in the course of the century the method of warfare had undergone a change which constantly increased the efficiency of the light troops.

In the succession of the Spanish Succession, there was almost always an arrayed battle, or besieged fortresses; The light troops remained, as their influence in these battles was very limited, only the field of a small war which had little influence on the great events. But the more, however, during the course of the seven years' war, the battles were divided into the struggles of individual colonies, the surprise and the flank attack being more frequently employed, the light troops were allowed to take part in the battle as well as their forces in reconnaissance and security services were taken advantage of.

Their importance as an integral part of the armies grew with the value of the services rendered by them, until they finally attained the equality with the line troops.

Norms cannot be established concerning the special handling of the service peculiar to the light troops. The forms seem to have been fluctuating, adapted to the special circumstances and views of the leaders.

In the security service, the Cordon system and the mixture of weapons play the same role throughout the century. The outpost positions of the individual divisions seem to have existed among the Hessian hussars not from advanced alarm positions and field guards, but mostly from smaller, independent posts, supported by larger pickets. In the case of the marching fighters, too, a greater emphasis was placed on a co-operation of the arms, than to allow the cavalry the liberty of movement necessary for the development of its abilities.

However, the hussars were given more independence in the reconnaissance service. There were no established rules on the strength and procedures of the patrols.  Whatever the form has been, the aim pursued, the correct and thorough communication, has almost always been achieved.

The Hessian Hussars are particularly advantageous in your postwar campaign. The spirit of cutting offensive, the wise thought plans the exploitation and embracing are admirably admirable, and the described undertakings of this kind can also serve as models for the hussars of the present time.

At any rate, the comrades of the Second Hessian Hussars Regiment No. 14 can look back with equitable pride at their military ancestors from the eighteenth century, who, despite the aggravating circumstances of a small-state army, a stiff discipline, and a dashing horseman, have not followed their Prussian arms.

Translated Extract from: Geschichte des königlich preussischen 2. hessischen Husaren-Regiments Nr. 14 und seiner hessischen Stammtruppen 1706-1886

The Period from 1794 to the Occupation of the Electorate in 1806.pdf

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