With the decisive victory of the allies at Leipsic, the throne of Jerome had also shaken, and for Hesse it was a moment to shake off the seven-year-old yoke of foreign domination. The capture of Cassel by the Russian General Chernitscheff in the last days of September, 1813, had already induced King Jerome to flee. However, he again ventured to return to his residence, and began to judge the "traitors", who had made common cause with the Russians, when the disaster came from the catastrophe near Leipzig, and on the 26th of October His Majesty the King passed through the urge of the circumstances to remove from your states, "as it was officially announced.1
1) Westföl. Momieur, October 27, 1813
On the 30th of October, Prince Wilhelm returned, cheerfully received by the faithful Hessians. With this day begins a new section for the history of Kurhessens, a time which the forgotten sad years soon forgotten.
The first government decree was the beautiful, enthusiastically received proclamation of the prince to the Hesse from the 5th of November. On the 21st, Elector Wilhelm I held his solemn entry, and on the following day ordered the convocation of all the officers on leave on 1 November 1806 to their cantons. Hess. Regiments into the former garrisons, to which all the montage pieces, along with armature and leatherwork, should be brought along. The officers were also called upon to stand; The Officers, who were under the command of Jerome, were most frequently placed under their own rank, which were hostile to the Government of Westphalia. On the 23rd of November, the order appeared: "The Hussars Regiment is also gathered in Grebenstein and the surrounding towns." Thereupon, in Grebenstein, there was formed 4 Escadrons under the command of Lieutenant-General Scheffer, 1806 Staff Rittmeister in the Regiment.
Of the remaining officers of the regiment, only Captain von Baumbach (1806 Premier Lieutenant), Lieutenant-Lieutenant Scheffer (the former Cornet, and the partisan of Dornberg), Second Lieutenant Knies (1806 Säbeljunker) and Regiment Surgeon Wiegand, (1802 Escadron Surgeon) in the regiment. Rittmeister Grau received the Leib Escadron Hussars, some came from other units, others had entered foreign service, passed away or deceased.
The uniform was changed to the extent that the yellow dolmen were replaced by silver, The furs remained blue.1 For the time being, instead of white, gray dresses were worn; The equipment was the same as in 1806. The crew was supplemented by veteran soldiers, people who had fought a great part in Spain and Russia, and volunteers. At first, it was intended to form a voluntary regiment alongside the Leib-Dragoons, but it was refrained from this, and on the 10th of December ordered that the Husaren Regiment be equipped for battle.
1) According to the rank list of 1814 light blue, according to statement- Colonel Abdecker dark blue.
As a result of the alliance treaty with the allies, Kurhessen had to make 21,000 men to wage war against Napoleon, so on 12 December the Elector issued an appeal to his people, who followed the mobilization of the army.
On the 22nd of December, the formation of the regiment was ordered with the following strength: 1 Staff Officers, 3 Escadrons Chiefs, 4 Staff Rittmeister, 8 Premier Lieutenants, 8 Seconde Lieutenants, 1 Regimental Adjutant, 1 Regiment Quartermaster Regimental surgeon, 4 Escadrons surgeons, 2 veterinarians, 4 flag fighters, 1 regimental saddler, 1 trumpet trumpeter, 4 guardians, 8 quartermaster, 48 corporate, 48 carabiners, 12 trumpeters, 472 hussars.
1) Dieseling, however, did not appear until the state calendar of 1815, but appeared to have been with the regiment in the campaign of 1814.
On the 5th of January, the Regiment moved the staff and two Escadrons to Cassel, 1 Escadron to Waldau and Ochshausen, 1 Escadron to Wolfsanger and Heringshausen; A few weeks later the regiment was inspected by the Elector on the parade ground. The 5th escadron of the Regiment formed under Rittmeister Grau in Cassel, and took up the men of the hussars and body-dragoons regiment, which had been left behind for ages. This Escadron was appointed to the Escadron Hussars in March and Grau was promoted to Major.
In view of the disorganized finances, the brevity of time, and other difficulties, it was not possible to form half of the Corps of Corps, as if made ready for march, as early as January 1, Gradually, the individual troop divisions were completed, and sent to France from mid-January to mid-April in various columns.
On January 10, 1814, the Order of Battle for the Kurhessian or 4th German Confederation was ordered and Se. Highness of the Electoral Prince appointed commander.
The 1st Brigade was commanded by General Major, Prince Solms (1806 Chief of the Hussars' Regiment), the second Brigade, General Major von Müller, praised by the 1809 campaign; The latter was the Hussars' Regiment and 2 Escadrons voluntary Jäger on horseback. Brigade commander of the cavalry was Colonel Prince Friedrich Wilhelm Of Hesse-Rumpenheim. The Hessian troops belonged to the Silesian army of Field Marshal Blücher. This consisted of the following troops:
1) Preuß. Corps Dorf,
2) Preuß. Corps Kleist,
3) Russ. Corps Langeron,
4) Russ. Corps Sacken,
5) Deutsches Bundes-Corps.,
6) Deutsches Bundes-Corps.,
The total strength was 137,391 men with 508 guns.
If we briefly outline the operation plan of the allies, Paris formed the main object. The Bohemian army under the Feldmarschall Schwarzenberg was in the great lowering between Jura and Vosges to Burgundy and the plateau of Langres procedure. The Silesian army received the not easy task of advancing from the Middle Rhine against Metz, to the erection of various fortresses, or to observe them, and to enter into closer relations with Schwarzenberg. After the occupation of Holland and Belgium, the army of the Lower Rhine was to cross the French frontier.
For Bliicher, it was particularly important to reach Metz at an early stage, and to thwart Napoleon's attempt to occupy the space between Langres and Metz. On January 15, both marshals at Langres, Metz arrive. At the end of December, the main column of the Bohemian army crossed the Rhine, and marched through the Swiss to Langres, occupying the 17th of January, with the troops of Victor, Ney, and Mortier; At the same time, the connection with the corps of the Blücher army was established. This crossed the Rhine at the New Year's night in 1813/14 at several points, the Corps Dorf special at Caub, while the Corps Kleist still stood in Erfurt.
On the 7th of January, the Corps Dorf advanced guard, connecting with Sacken, reached the Saar; Trier was taken and, until the middle of the month, Saarlouis, Thionville, Metz, and Luxemburg, from parts of the Dorf Corps, while the army advances further. In spite of local difficulties, the rapid action of the Silesian army was made possible by the fact that Marshal Marmont, with his united forces of about 20,000 men, made almost no resistance, but withdrew from the Saar to Metz and further to Verdun.
The fortresses were strongly occupied by the enemy, especially Metz, with 10,000 men; To secure the advance of the army, and to suppress any elevations in the country, it was of particular importance to the allies to block the Moselle and Saar fortresses.
Notwithstanding the repeated warnings of the Field Marshal Blücher, that the first half of the Kurhessian troops to be put up (12,000 men) had to be ready in time, the 1st column of General von Müller did not meet until the l. February in Coblenz and on 8 February in Trier. A part came from here to Thionville, the other to the blockade of Luxemburg, and there were three battalions of infantry under General von Müller before the former, three battalions under General von Darnberg (known from 1809) before the latter fortress.
During this time the armaments, particularly under Cassel, were energetically operated under the personal guidance of the Kurprinzen. On his intercession, the Elector ordered the National Cocards to be introduced during the war, to introduce the Prussian Regulations for Infantry and Cavalry of 1812, and to grant batches to the Cavalry Officers. The ration for the cavalry was increased to three-quarters of Berlin's mint of oats, six pounds of hay, and six pounds of straw, on account of "constant marching and the upcoming campaign." In short, the cure prince was the soul of the whole; And a considerable acceleration of the whole mobilization. The Hessians, under the command of General von Kleist, were to fight together with the Prussian comrades, the Kurprinzen was very much in a position to compensate for differences in clothing, pay, and education The Prussian pattern of diplomats of the officers was introduced into the Prussian model, and the Prince's efforts to step out of the narrow confines of the little state and to take the glorious Prussians as a guideline cannot be sufficiently appreciated and was not supported by the War Collegium.
On the 30th of January, after the solemn service, the second marching column (4200 men), under the command of General Prince Solms, left Cassel, and arrived on the 16th of February, before the two fortresses. In the column was also a detachment of the Hussars regiment in the strength of 10 officers. 16 officers, 4 trumpeters, 1 horse doctor, 1 flag fighter, 180 hussars, 203 horses, equal to 212 heads.
On the battlefield the lack of cavalry was already felt, as is proved by a letter from Dornberg to the Kurprinzen of 31 January. Dörnberg writes, among other things: "Luxembourg and Trier are to be observed, it is a matter of want of all, to send cavalry only as soon as possible."
1) On February 22nd, under the leadership of Thornville (General von Müller)
4 Battalions infantry,
4 Companies Jägers,
2 Free Escadrons. Riding Jägers;
About 3400 men.
The 3rd column under the leadership of the prince, respectively. Colonel von Hayn, left Cassel on March 2nd.
A solemn salvation in St. Martinskirche preceded, the Elector, and almost the whole town, gave the warriors the escort for Germany's honor; The rest of the Hussars regiment, with the strength of 16 officers, 42 officers, 9 trumpeters, 3 surgeons, 3 flagsmiths, 325 hussars, and 386 horses.
On the 18th of March, this column arrived at Trier via Coblenz, where the Kurprinz issued a daily order to his troops on the 19th.
He recalled the laurels that Hessian weapons fought in earlier campaigns, and expressed the firm conviction that this time also new glory leaves were being added. The Hussars' regiment was allotted to the troops of General von Muller, which were to block Metz; Before Luxemburg under Prince Solms remained the detachment of 200 hussars, with the Hessian troops before Thionville and Saarlouis were no hussars. A detachment of 4 officers, 10 hussars, 11 horses to the mobile regiment, the 5th and 6th Marsch-Colonne (26 March and 12 April) did not increase the hussars.1)
1) An actual deposit account, resp. Replacement Escadron was not available.
From the mobile regiment, therefore, came:
On the 30th of January, 10 officers, 16 officers, four trumpeters, 180 hussars, 1 surgeon, 1 flag frog; As well as 1 horse doctor and a number of servants - 202 men, 203 horses.
On March 2nd - 16 officers, 42 officers, 9 trumpeters, 325 hussars, 3 surgeons, 3 flag hunters; In addition: 1 horse doctor, 1 regimental quartermaster, 1 regimental surgeon, 2 gunmen, 1 regimental saddler, and a number of servants - 382 men, 388 troop horses and 21 officer horsemen. Remained in the depot
On March 18th - 1 non-commissioned officer, 10 hussars, 11 horses.
On April 12th - 11 hussars, 11 horses.
Rest in the depot: 1 officer, 2 hussars, 2 servants.
In total: 26 Officers, 60 Officers, 13 Trumpeters, 528 Hussars,
2 surgeons, 4 blacksmiths, 607 men, 613 horses.
Target budget1): 20 officers, 60 officers, 13 trumpeters, 528 carabiners and hussars, 2 surgeons, 4 blacksmiths - 607 men, 613 horses. In addition: 1 regimental quartermaster, 1 regimental surgeon, 2 equine doctors, 1 regimental saddler, 1 regimental flagsmith, 33 servants, 21 officer charge horses, 12 train horses. 6 officers, and three volunteer officers, among them the Spaniard Don La Patte, who on 17th of February was assigned to the regiment for the duration of the Campaign as a Second-Lieutenant.
1) The same was somewhat altered to that of Dec 22, 1813.
The 2nd Escadron commanded Rittmeister of Cornberg, b. In 1783 he was at Halberstadt, from 1799-1806 in the Prussian cavalry, then in Westphalian service, where he was most recently a lieutenant-in-chief in the Chevaux-Guards. - The 3rd Escadron led Rittmeister of Eschwege, n. 1790 to Eschwege in Kurheffen, from 1804-1806 in the Kurhessian cavalry, then in Westphalian service, most recently as lieutenant in the Garde Chevaux-legers and Ordonnanz-Officier of King Jerome.
The chief of the 4th Escadron, Rittmeister of Baumbach, had under Landgraf Wilhelm IX. Elector Wilhelm I served in the infantry regiment Leibgarde, 1806 in the Hussars regiment as the oldest Seconde lieutenant. In his service at the Westphalian service, he made the campaign in Spain with the help of Oberstleutenant Scheffer. He was wounded, decorated, and, after his return, became Westphalian hunting inspector in Waldau. Adjutant was Lieutenant-Lieutenant Heusinger of Waldegg, a native of Kurhessen, who had participated in 3 campaigns in Westphalian service and had been wounded at Zahna in 1813.
The officers of the officers were, on a monthly basis, following the lists of February 26, 1814:
1) The Kurprinz used several times for Oberstlieutenant Scheffer, in order to procure him the commander's salary. But since the brigade commander, Colonel-Prince of Hesse, to the regiment aggr. , The latter received the commander's salary of the Hussars Regiment, with 216 2/3 rthlrn, 7 Rat., 1 Port, and 104 1/3 rthlrn. The money of the month of the month, while, according to the rescript of the elector of February 5, 1814, Scheffer, with the second staff officier's fee of 158 per cent., 5 gu., 1 port, and 79 1/5 guillotines. Mobilization must be confined to monthly payments. This content was set to 50 rthlrn. As the 2nd Staff Officers' Gage and 108 1/3 rthlrn. For the body Escadron - 158 1/3 rthlrn. together.
2) The budget had changed somewhat from December 1813. In December there were only 184 horses and 405 hussars, but in February there were 625 service, horses, 480 hussars, and 31 servants. This is to be inferred from the fact that the first mentioned number of horses were mostly brought by the holidaymakers, while the remaining approx. 450 horses were gradually received by arrival. The Gage ex vaasa was paid for the Rittmeister von Eschwege and the 5 non-scheduled Second-Lieutenants, as was the allowance of 6 rthlrn. For the regimental adjutant; The Bolontair Officers received no salary.
Before March 2, only about 8500 men of Hessian troops had descended to the place of war, although the Minister Stein, 6th Chaumont, on the 31st of January, reminded the Electors, and placed 12,000 men armed and clothed by 12 February to have to. In order to speed up the recruitment, cavalry commandos were set up, from the Huarsaren regiment in the middle of February to the 1st and 3rd Landwehr Depot to Homberg and Wolfhagen, and for the artillery to Cassel, 1 non-commissioned officer, 10 Hussars, as a whole Unofficial, 30 men. The prince especially asked his father "to be allowed to use the cavalry for the restitution of the paranoid cantons, since this is best suited to this."
As we approached the events of the war, we saw already how three Hessian Infantry Battalions (Fusilier Battalion Elector, 1st and 2nd Battalion Electoral Prince), under General von Dörnberg, replaced the Prussian troops before Luxembourg (11 February). If these consisted only of individual swathes and hunter-detachments, the three Hessian battalions, without cavalry and artillery, were even less able to make a fortress. Luxemburg, by its favorable position, and numerous detached forts, was fortified with 70 guns, plentifully supplied, and had a garrison of some 4,000 men, along with 100 men of mounted gendarmeries and Douaniers under the command of General Vimeux. The Hessians had to content themselves with confronting a terrain section in the north-east and waiting for reinforcements. The service was very attacking, as the French made numerous failures, which were rejected by the few Hessians with great courage.
Between the 15th and 22nd of February, the following troop parts arrived before Luxembourg: Regiment Landgraf Carl, Regiment Prince Solms, 2 Companies of trained Jäger, 1 Company voluntary Jäger, 1 detachment Hussars (2 weak Escadrons about 200 horses), 1/3 battery (Wille), 1 minor detachment, in total: about 4900 men.
With this number of troops, it was possible to observe the fortress from all sides, although the sensible shortage of cavalry and artillery was little repaired.
On the 18th of February, Dörnberg praised the courtesy of the troops, but complained about the few officers. On the same day, Dörnberg, as General in Chief of both observation corps, moved his headquarters from Sandweiler to Thionville; General Prince Solms cantonned in Sandweiler.
The Detachment Hussars, according to the list of the day, from the Cavalry from the 1st to the 10th of March, 1814, and the rest of the headquarters of Limburg: ten officers, one surgeon, one veterinarian, four trumpeters, six carabiners, 1 flagsmith, 164 Hussars, 203 Horses. It is clear that the hussars had no easy service, since it was chiefly on patrols and outposts. For the offensive spirit of General von Darnberg, it was already the case that he had already made an attempt at Luxemburg by means of a hand-stroke in the night of 22-23 February. This assault, undertaken with the consent of some citizens, failed for various reasons; So the 50 Hussars, who were posted with one company infantry under the command of the chief Wolf of Gudenberg, in the west of the fortress, did not come into action.
The time which followed was interrupted by small failures and patrols, but the intervention of the Hussars in their fragmentation was always of subordinate importance. It seems, however, that they participated actively in the hostile field, after the battle of Eich and Weimerskirch (March 8), with requisitions of cattle and forage. The failure on 18 March at Merl and Hollerich was to be the occasion for the regiment. The French attacked at eight o'clock in the morning with about a thousand men, 40 mounted gendarmes, and two guns, which were occupied by the Fusilier Battalion of the Regiment Landgraf Carl. The official report reports on the further details: "The enemy attacked Hollerich by storm, Hauptmann von Hesberg had to go back, the pickets were thrown. The French went to Merl, the advanced guard somewhat too far. As soon as Lieutenant Mauritius, with his hussars' division, remarked this, he set off in stretched Carriere. The enemy grenadiers formed a square, the rest ran away; Lieutenant Mauritius battled with 19 hussars and killed 30 enemies. The brave Hussars officer received five light stitches, he joined himself, and lived the affair until the end. In addition, Renouard added that Lieutenant Mauritius had been seducing the Frenchman by movements with the sabers and a hurray, whereupon he took them back on their way home Had attacked with energy, without the aid of the nearby 40 riding gendarmes, before the collision, the grenadiers, reinforced by about 100 men, had formed a square, behind which the guns were held inactive by the lieutenant Mauritius, with the enemy suffering a loss of fifteen killed and a great many wounded, while the Hussars, 1 killed, and six wounded, one of whom died in the hospital on his wounds.
The names of the Brave deserve to be named here:
A. Gefallen, resp. Died on the wounds: Hussar Jacob Schake, Husar Conrad Wurst.
B. Wounded: Second-Lieutenant August Mauritius from Sandershausen near Cassel, during the foreign domination in Westphalian services, trumpeter Justus Hieronymus Steinfeldt from Allendorf a. d. Werra1), Carabinier Fischer, Hussar Johann Vollmar, Hussar Heinrich Kranz. 6. In addition loss of horses: 1 killed, several wounded.2
1) In 1818, Steinfeldt became staff trumpeter in the regiment.
2) All the dead and wounded were from the 4th Escadron of the Rittersmeister of Baumbach.
Not uninteresting are several small episodes, which occurred in this battle. The horse of a hussar shied in front of a cannonball shot from the fortress, the saddle slipping, and the man was dragged along in a hanger; Lieutenant Mauritius jumped from the horse in spite of the strong fire, blew it through the trumpeter Steinfeldt, helped the hussar out of the hutch, and brought man and horse to safety. The enemy continued, and the attack followed, with the officer and his trumpeter the first in the square. Steinfeldt, who had used the fine saber as well as his trumpet, received a shot through the heel, which made him incapacitated for the duration of the Campaign and forced him to join the campaign in 1815 with a boot and a shoe, hanging the crutch on the saber. A hussar was immediately killed by a bayonet stab in his mouth; The sword's undercut, Brill, slammed the blade of the saber, so he threw the vessel in the face with a full force at the Frenchman who was about to stab him.
3) These communications come from the trumpeter Steinfeldt, by whose son Ludwig Steinfeldt, Aichmeister in Allendors a. d. Werra.
The real sacrifice of Lieutenant Mauritius had contributed not a little to the success of the battle. Lieutenant-General von Borck, Commander of the Landgraf Carl Regiment, especially praised the excellent behavior of the young Hussars Lieutenant. On the 13th of March, the elector gave the Order of the Iron Helmet1 to the well-deserved officer, and later the trumpeter Steinfeldt, Corporal Brill and Hussar Vollmar, of the escadron of Baumbach, who had behaved especially bravely on this occasion.
1) Hessian Berienstkrcuz, founded for the war of liberation.
On March 19, after various changes, the dislocation of the troops, A. The following:
Jtzig: Main quarter of the General-Major von Dörnberg (since 5 March).
Sandweiler: main quarters of the General-Majors Prince Solms.
Nieder-Anwen: Staff and 1 Escadron Hussars, with detachments in the villages of Hollerich and Sandweiler, as well as a picket on the road from Trier to Luxembourg.
In consequence of the numerous failures and battles, the attention of the forces of the Cernirung had to be doubled, and this was especially the case with the Hussar detachments. Apart from the rather hopeless bombardment of Luxembourg on the night of March 20-21, only a few patrol battles were interrupted by this strenuous post-office service until the expedition of General Durutte from Metz gave the situation a different turn.
General Durutte, Governor of Metz, who had already undertaken an unhindered expedition to Thionville, had broken out on March 24 with six or eight thousand men from Metz, in order to draw up, on command of Napoleon, the usual troops from the Moselle fortresses, and the same to Chalons to lead. On the following days, Durutte was only a little afraid of Prussia. Major von Bieberstein, Saarlouis, strengthened himself by 500 men of a select team, and appeared on the 26th before Thionville. This fortress, though badly provisional and weakly defended, had vigorously resisted the Hessian troops under the energetic order of General Hugo. The numerous failures of the occupation had always been repulsively repulsed by the Hessians under General von Miiller, who had been replaced by Colonel von Haynau. Prior to the overpowerment of Count Durutte, the Hessians cleared the right bank of the Moselle and could not refuse the invasion of the enemy into the fortress.
The Kurprinz ordered from the Hettange headquarters that two battalions of infantry, one escadron hussars, and one-half battery should be marched from Luxembourg.
Once again considerably strengthened, Durutte continued on the morning of the 27th of March, his train to Luxembourg. Colonel von Haynau, with his weak troops, held up the enemy very cleverly, and offered him considerable resistance, especially in a very good position, with Hettange. Hesitantly the return march to Roussy was made, where the reinforcement, ordered from Luxembourg, arrived under General Prince Solms. If these troops were not able to give the victor a triumphant turn, they nevertheless covered the right-wing march of the Thionville Corps, and thwarted the opponent's plans to cut off the Hesse by a bypass from Luxembourg. Despite many terrain difficulties Haynau reached unhindered in the night Sandweiler, east of Luxembourg, where most of the fortifications of the fortress had concentrated. Durutte had arrived with his corps in Luxembourg the same evening, after the great road and the district south of the fortress had been cleared of the Hessians.
On the 28th of March, General von Dörnberg, as commander-in-chief, had set up the united Corps east of Luxembourg so that an offensive from the fortress could be met as vigorously as possible, and the retreat to Trier was assured. The enemy, appearing at 9 am, was received with a lively artillery barrage. Then two battalions of the Prince Solms regiment advanced, and a Hussar detachment under Lieutenant Knies followed this movement. The enemy infantry formed a square, and Lieutenant Knies attacked it with his hussars.
“But the attempt to break through it failed the cavalry; Yet the Choc, as well as the simultaneous attack of two infantry battalions, caused the enemy to retreat to Luxembourg.1”
1) See Renouard: "The Kurhessen im Feldzuge 1814."
The loss to Hesse in this battle was eight dead, 39 wounded and 13 missing; The Hussars had also lost a horse.
After the departure of Durutte on 29th March with 800 men reinforcements after Longwy resp. Verdun, the Hessian troops, with some modifications, moved their old districts before the fortresses. A weaker detachment of cavalry than before, with the strength of eight officers, 17 officers, three trumpeters, 143 hussars, one surgeon, one flag fighter, 153 horses-probably the Escadron Cornberg and another detachment of the Escadron Baumbach. 1 The Kurprinz laid his headquarters at Rodt, two miles north-east of Luxembourg.
1) See daily list of the cavalry from March 20th to April 1st, 1814.
The weak corps of the Russian general Aussefovitch, which had been replaced by Aork's troops, had been pushed back from his position in front of Metz by Durutte, but had resumed his old position after various engagements on March 23rd. In the strong fortress, which was well stocked with supplies and ammunition, there were still 5000 men of the national guard.
At this time, the Third March column of the Hessians had arrived, and about 8,000 men, under General von Müller, were to relieve the Russians before Metz.
While these troops were on the march to Metz from Luxembourg, Lieutenant Colonel Scheffer, whose regiment was exclusively destined for the Metz blockade, was ordered to take a trip to the Longwy area. This flying corps was composed of 400 hussars, the 3rd Escadron (Escadron Malsburg) of the Jäger and 2 companions of trained Jäger, and was to counter the attacks of the garrison on Longwy, as well as unrest in the region there.
On the 21st of March, Colonel Scheffer2 collected his troops at Tipach, about two miles west of Luxembourg, and broke into Villiers la Montagne on the morning of March 22nd, one-mile southeast Longwy, which reached at 11 am has been. In the afternoon it was marched to Aumetz and stayed here. - Up to now six miles of bad road had been laid - a not inconsiderable achievement. From Aumetz, on the 22nd, a strong detachment against Etain was sent, which was to reappear on the 24th.
2)Husaren Regiment: March 18 Euren Church; - March 19 Flexweiler; -20 March Teutingen
On the 23rd Scheffer made his way to Briey, a distance of three miles to the south of Aumetz, and on March 23rd at 5 o'clock in the evening he reported to General von Müller that he had just entered the town, 1 Escadron Jäger, and a company of trained Foot-Jäger, had advanced a half-hour, and had dismissed Rittmeister of Baumbach with 100 horses to Etain, in order not to be exposed to unhappy assaults.3
3) According to this, the statement by Renouard does not agree, according to which 21 March and reached Briey on March 22nd.
On the 24th of March, the order of the prince to come to the corps at Richemont as soon as possible. On the morning of the morning, at three o'clock, Colonel Scheffer, with his detachment, marched off the 3-mile road so quickly that he reached the commanded place before seven o'clock. The expeditionary corps had traversed about twelve miles in some 54 hours, partly at night, and on groundless roads, but without any enemy troops! Under the eyes of the prince, the Russian troops were relieved before Metz; On 25th March General Aussefowitsch marched to Verdun, and on the following day the Hessian troops occupied the following district:
Headquarters of General von Müller: Ars sur Moselle.
Left bank of the Moselle: 6 battalions of infantry, trained Jäger, Leib-Dragoon regiment, I foot battery.
Right bank of the Mosel: 2 battalions of the Landwehr (Marly, Augny and Jouy), Hussars and 1 Escadron riding Jäger for the observation of the right Moselle bank; Of the regimental staff, 1 Escadron hussars and 1 escadron riding Jäger Marly with post in Magny (35 men field guard), 1 Escadron Husaren Augny with post in St. Privat and on the Moselle (1 Lower Staff, 6 men on the left Wing); 1 Escadron Hussars Bomy with post in Grimmont and Grigy, 1 officier each, 30 men as a piket. The Hussars, in the afternoon of the 26th, dissolved all the Cossack posts; 3 Commands of 1 Non-commissioned officer, 6 men were detonated according to Gravelotte, Gorze, and Ancy; on March 27, the connection with Aussefowitsch in Etain was selected by Mars la Tour.1
1) The three Escadron hussars were only weak, since there were still 200 horses before.
Since the hussars and Jäger could not pass the Moselle at Metz because of the high water, they had to use the bridge of Pont-à-Mousson, miles above Metz. In order to secure this passage, General von Müller left one officer, 14 men of infantry, and six men of cavalry. Already in the first days, the hussars had the opportunity to become hand-in-hand with the enemy.
Colonel Zincke, commander of the two Landwehr battalions, reported to General von Müller on 28 March, among other things:
"This morning, the French made a failure with 600 infantry to the area of Borny; These were attacked by the Hussar Escadron of Eschwege. Despite the terrain, which was very unfavorable because of the vineyards, the lieutenant Helwig, who was on the ground, had tried to cut a carcass, which, however, could not be destroyed because of the great supremacy of the infantry and the difficult ground. Lieutenant Helwig and a hussar were blown. The escadron was obliged to retreat on the road to Strasbourg, and could not prevent the French taking a strong transport Meh and other food which the peasants brought with them into the fortress. "
In the end it says: "I can not help reporting to your Highborn that the Escadron of Eschwege was beaten this morning, in an unfavorable terrain, against a six fold stronger enemy, and fought with the most distinguished bravery and boldness, and inspired the best spirit has been.
I ask your Excellency to recommend especially to Lieutenant Helwig to his Electoral Prince, who, with the greatest heroic courage, has cut through the square with his train of 40 men, and has received two heavy gunshot wounds, so that he will be useless for military service. "
According to the official list of losses, Second Lieutenant Ferdinand Helwig was wounded by the thigh as well as the hussar Heinrich Krosch from Cassel, while the hussar Johann Martin from Sterzhausen was captured by the weather. The former received for his brave behavior the Order of the Iron Helmet. At the same time Colonel Zincke informed him that Lieutenant von Schwertzell had ridden a patrol to Boulau from the Hussars' Regiment, and had reported that the blockade of Thionville and Saarlouis had been lifted, and Durutte on the march to Metz. According to this, the cavalry "almost ruined by the heavy service" would make it impossible to secure the great terrain section on the side of the rope up to the Mosel, since the present situation was already untenable as a result of the numerous failures Lieutenant-General Scheffner, in a letter to an officer of General von Müller's letter, similarly remarked: "The enemy passes through the Moselle as he will, and I am too weak to obtain these chaines, General should take the position, that would give him a clue, for my horses are caput. "
From all this it is evident how the service of the troops before the fortresses was no easier, and especially the cavalry has been strongly occupied in recent times. The season and bad weather, the walks and strong rides had attacked the horse-stuff very much, and therefore the bravery is to be recognized, The Hussars repeatedly attacked the enemy. In his reports to the Elector, the Prince-Elector emphasized the bad condition of the cavalry, and strongly demanded reinforcements. On the 31st of March, he wrote from Rodt to his father:
The large patrols (up to Longwy) and the strong field watch service attack the cavalry very much; A substitute would be necessary, and he would ask for a depot- escadron for every cavalry regiment. "
On 3 April, the prince complained again about the attacked condition of the cavalry; it would be useless to the service; he asked for supplies of horses.
On the 5th of April he was also present to the Elector on account of the lack of cavalry and ammunition. These and earlier petitions, however, had no great success, for the 4th Marsch-Colonne, at the beginning of April, had only a small detachment to each of the three cavalry regiments, the Hussar Regiment, specially: 1 non-commissioned officer, 10 common soldiers, and 11 Horses. The 5th column was sent without cavalry, the 6th (last) led the three Regiments in total 50 horses, the Hussars regiment 11 men, 11 horses. The two last columns, however, arrived at a time when the peace had already been closed in Paris, but the troops sent with them were very welcome to the troops.
Confusion at Metz as to the events before Thionville and Luxemburg. There were several exciting rumors, and a section of Hussars (1 officer and 40 horses) was to be sent to Rodt, the chief quarter of the Kurprinz, by order of General von Müller, when from March 31st a report on the last Days arrived. - However, a strong recognition of 100 body dragoons had already been made above Briey, and the attention especially to the north-west against an event. Durutte's march doubled. In Marly, on March 30th, there had also been an armed battle, the hussar Heinrich Metz of the Escadron Eschwege was created.
On the order of the prince, General von Müller withdrew the troops from Metz, on April 1, to an observing position behind the Orne, in order to be in touch with Luxembourg in the event of an attack with Luxembourg. For this purpose, the troops of the right bank of the Moselle (the Hussars' regiment) were collected in Ars-sur Moselle. The march to Richemont occurred in the night, and the position was taken on the morning of the 2nd: Great at Richemont behind the Orne, avant-garde at Maizieres (Hussars), outpost in the line Ladonchamp-Maison Rouge. At the same time, a commando of all the weapons had been sent to the Luxembourg Corps.
General von Müller, however, did not consider this position behind the Orne as suitable for carrying out his task adequately. The blockade of Metz should at the same time cover Nancy; Aussefowitsch, who had for a few days been with the troops of Prince Biron, wished to work with Miiller against Metz. These points of view, as well as the circumstance of knowing Durutte near Verdun, caused the Hessian general to resume his old positions before the fortress.
On the 3rd of April, at ten o'clock in the evening, large security measures were broken, the Hussars standing at Maizieres joining the main body. 1 officer and 40 hussars were sent to St. Privat, with the order to patrol particularly to St. Marie to Briey. A detachment hussars with some companies of infantry and huntsmen formed the armed guard to cover the baggage. Before that, Colonel Scheffer had reported from Maizieres that Maison Rouge was occupied by infantry, cavalry, and two guns; The cavalry consisted of newly built French Cossacks. Under the protection of the advancing advanced guard, which was widely known, on the morning of April 4, the troops had occupied a position northwest of Metz on the left bank of the Moselle without disturbance. The avant-garde had the line Moulins-Ars s. M.; In addition, the right flank against Verdun-Longwy was secured in a suitable manner, at the same time also an event. Retreat to Verdun. While the 2nd Grenadier Battalion occupied Woippy, six companies of the Regiment Elector, the Hussars, the 3rd Escadron of riding Jäger, and two guns remained at Maison Rouge. After Mes was in order, these troops marched as a reserve into a bivouac at Maizieres.
On the 4th, the Hesse were not affected by failures, but in the morning they were attacked from the west by the corps of General Durutte, about 8,000 men strong. Thanks to the early and good news of the Dragoons in Gravelotte and Vaux, General Müller was able to make an orderly retreat in time. The reserve of Maizieres was so far active in the vigorous engagement that it formed an exception for their comrades, who were softening their superiority, and the hussars and riding Jäger were sent to Maison Rouge. The official report adds: "This measure was due to the fact that the enemy resolved the battle with a violent cannonade and followed slowly without fire."
In the evening, the loss of a small loss (7 dead, 25 wounded, and 182 manned) was taken up in the old position behind the Orne. Hagondange was occupied by a hussars detachment, which patrolled to Maizieres.
According to news from a good source (probably determined by an officer patrol of the Hussars), Colonel Scheffer announced that Durutte had advanced a strong side detachment on the right bank of the Moselle with the intention of attacking the Hesse before Thionville and cutting off General Müller. That is why the latter went back to Hettauge in the night of April 5; After a very laborious march, on very dilute roads, his troops reached the village on the 5th and the connection with the Colonel von Haynau.
Since the Hessian troops are now coming into closer contact with the three Moslem troops, it is necessary to make up for the events of recent times before Thionville and Luxemburg.
On the 30th of March, Thionville was again harvested on the left bank of the Moselle, while General Hugo, as far as possible, had used the resting-place to supply himself with fresh provisions. As before Metz, a great activity was developed on the part of the Hessians.
The patrol service from Richemont to Rodt and Longwy was particularly zealous. As a result of the incoming reports of the enemy, the events at Metz, and the planned retreat of General Müller to Thionville, Colonel von Haynau concentrated his corps on April 4, near Hettange, 1 mile north of the fortress with General von Müller.
Around Luxembourg the ring of the siege troops on the 29th. In the evening of March, the following new remarks are to be mentioned:
Rodt: Main quarters of the Kurprinzen (Major General von Dörnberg left the army on 23 March and returned to the English army). Sandweiler: Staff quarter of the General-Major Prinz Solms-Braunfels.
Straßen: 1 Officier, 45 Hussars from the Escadron v. Baumbach, 7 Comp.
Reg. Landgraf Carl, 40 Jägers of the 4th Comp, frew. Foot Jäger.
The approach of the Corps Durutte against Metz, as well as other partly false or exaggerated rumors of the enemy, prompted an increased security service before Luxembourg.
In addition to stronger detachments according to Conz, resp. Grevenmakers, who gave the 4th Marsch-Colonne, were diligently patrolled. Among other things, Premier Lieutenant von Lehsten was sent from the main quarter with 12 hussars to Remich, about five miles from Dipach.1
1) Possibly, these 12 hussars were from the Staff Watch of the Main Quarter.
On the 4th of April the General of Müller, the Regiment of the Regiment, the trained Jägers, 1 Escadron Leib-Dragoons and 6 guns, arrived. On the night of April 5, the fortress was bombarded a second time without success.
As previously reported, on April 5, General von Müller united his corps at Hettange with that of Colonel von Haynau, and took over the command. On the great road to Luxemburg the troops found a very good position against Thionville, the left wing leaning against the Moselle. While the infantry strengthened this position as much as possible, the cavalry was used for extensive reconnaissance. Among them was 1 Escadron Hussars (Rittmeister von Eschwege)1, against Longwy, to Esch-sur-l'Olzette, which had escort with the Escadron of Cornberg in Dipach and the Jäger Escadron of Louis against Briey. In order to secure a possible attack by Durutte from Longwy, Frisange was entrenched and occupied by one battalion, and likewise some villages lying between Hettange and Frisange. The dragoons and hussars were cantonized in Oeutrange and Entränge, with the order to make a reserve on two sides with the infantry in Roussi.2
1) According to the daily list from the 1st to the 10th. April: 67 horses.
2) Staff of the Regiment on April 7 Hettange.
In the next few days, repeated failures took place, which were repulsed by the Hessians with courage. Guentrange was often harassed, so that there were ten more hussars.
On the 6th, a detachment under Lieutenant Knies made contact with the enemy and lost 1 horse. The hussars also took part in the battalion of 8 April, the enemy being driven to the suburb of Beauregard.
General von Müller was now ordered to go to Metz with General Yussefovitch. At the same time, a reinforcement of some battalions attacked infantry, Jägers, and guns; General von Müller now proposed to Dussefowitsch a plan, according to which Metz was to be attacked in four columns from the north and the west. The Russian general entered upon this, and after the annexation of the detachments, Müller determined that his corps would begin the advance on the 10th of April. Colonel von Haynau remained with his troops before Thionville, the 1st Grenadier battalion on the right bank of the Mosel.
On the 10th of April, the Corps miller broke into Metz in two columns, and the main column (General von Müller) entered the great road to Richemont, the right column (Colonel of Marshal) to Briey. In the main column were the 3 Escadrons Hussars.1 Lieutenant Colonel Scheffer leads the advanced guard, on whose 1 Escadron Hussars was located; Two escadrons followed the queue of the main force. This column moved bivouacs in the old position behind the Orne, the outposts (probably the advanced-guard) occupied the line Mondelange-Hagondange with patrols to Maizieres.
1) Leib, Eschwege and Baumbach; Cornberg and 1 detachment of Baumbach before Luxembourg (153 horses).
The attack, which had been cleverly set in motion, was no longer to be carried out. On the eleventh, both columns marched from Richemont, and Briey, and General von Müller was about to give the signal for a concentric attack when the news of the truce which Dussefowitsch had closed with Durutte arrived. The victories of the allies, the change in the government of France, had brought the French General to them. In the written agreement of April 10th, Durutte undertook to equal the other fortresses, which had been made by Hessian troops. After the hostilities had ceased, the task of Corps Müller was now to observe Metz.
On the 11th of April, the main column at Richemont cantoned behind the Orne; the castle of Pepinville became the main quarters of General von Müller; The Russians were connected with the Hesse by the occupation of Gravelotte and Mars-la Tour. The hussars and riding Jägers lay in the area of Moyeuvre la Grande and Roffelange.
After Colonel von Haynau had made vain attempts on April 10th to negotiate with the commandant of Thionville, General Hugo, on the 16th the hostilities were discontinued, the Hessian prisoners of war returned, and on the 17th a cease-fire ceased. Here, too, the troops remained in a vast region on both banks of the Moselle until the end of May; Hettange was the staff quarters of the Colonel of Haynau.
There was nothing important before the fortress of Luxembourg after the 2nd bombardment. The security service has been handled in the present way; The dislocation was partly altered, and the chief ouartier of the Kurprinzen moved to Frisange. After the arrival of the victorious news from Paris, negotiations were made with the commandant, General Vimeux, but met with great opposition. It was only after the appointment of Count Durutte that a convention was held on 15 April, according to which the Hessian troops were to observe the fortress from a distance of 3 hours (3000 Toisen). In the next few days the troops advanced further, and the main quarter came to Sierck on the 24th. Except for Luxembourg, the French troops, who had been taken by Durutte during his time, were allowed to return to the fortresses. On the 2nd of May, according to an agreement with the French government, the Kurhessen occupied Luxembourg, and the garrison departed the following day to Thionville. On the 8th of May the Elector went to Paris, and gave the Prince Solms the chief command. At the same time, with the announcement of his coming leave, the Kurprinz expressed himself, with his father, very pleased with the departure of the Russians, "since their numerous cavalry is devouring all the resources."
Before Saarlouis, too, an armistice was concluded on the 15th of April, and the troops of the cavalry were transferred to the previous cantonments.
A commando of 2 battalions of the 3rd Landwehr Regiment and 2 Escadrons Hussars (Rittmeister of Baumbach) were sent to Longwy on the 11th of April by General von Müller to observe this fortress, but to avoid hostilities. The Commando cernirte Longwy, Colonel Zincke lay in Villers la Montagne. In Rehon, 1 Company and 50 Hussars, who were "continually troubled by cannon-fire from the fortress and defenses,"1 on the 13th of April, were cantoning. "On the same night the enemy attacked Rehon, but was vigorously repulsed. An armistice between Colonel Zincke and the Commandant Lavill'on came to an end, as happened a few days later in front of the Montmedy fortress, and all the troops were well housed in magazines, and the infantry were still standing in front of Longwy, The two Escadrons Hussars returned to the Regiment on April 21st.
1) S. Renouard: “1814”.
At Metz, the troops of General von Müller remained until the end of May in extensive cantonments. At the end of April, the Hussars regiment united for the first time all the Escadrons, but only after the conclusion of all the warlike operations.
On the 24th of April, the Regiment had occupied the following quarters on the left bank of the Moselle, north-east of Metz: Staff Labry, Escadron (Dalwigk): Abbeville, Escadron Cornberg: Olley, Escadron Eschwege: Conflans, Escadron Baumbach: Ozerailles, Krankenstall, Fleville; As well as 7 other Cantonnements. Relays with the staff quarter of General von Müller to Richemont were in Valleroy and Moyeuvre la Grande.
The next few weeks until the time of the departure, the active Commander-in-Chief was making every effort to help the horse material and to cultivate the inner branches of service. Many matters were now being dealt with, which had previously been lacking in the fragmentation of the regiment. Thus, Colonel Scheffer gave 200 sabers with steel grips to the body dragoons, and received 200 English hussar sabers for which the regiment had already long thought. Every day he was exercised on horseback and on foot, and in the evening he was held. The sick horses came to Flovville under the care of a horse doctor, five unsuitable horses were sold well in Conflans. There were some changes in the Officier Corps. Stabs-Rittmeister Ludwig and Second-Lieutenant of Baumbach were from the middle of April until the end of the Campagne to the Voluntary riding hunters, since there was a lack of officers: for the former, Stab-Rittmeister of Dalwigk assumed the Leib-Dragoner Escadron. In addition, the following were dispatched: Premier-Lieutenant Laporte to Cassel, 1 officer to the staff of General von Müller, a few men and horses to the Jägern, ordinances, relays: c. The following were ill: Lieutenant Helwig (still on his wounds), Premier Lieutenant Meder, and Rittmeister of Efchwege, whose Escadron led Premier Lieutenant Klenzc. Of the three Volontair officers, lieutenant von Ichwertzell and Schminke were on leave in May, Lieutenant Don La Patte asked for his passports and went back to Paris via Paris. In the continuation of the assignment, resp. The transit of troops, after a time, was a serious shortage of the Fourth, more than the Russians-especially the Cossacks-consumed everything. On the 19th of May, Scheffer complained very much, and asked General von Müller to move to another district. If he did not make an order, he would march to Richemont in three days, "for I cannot possibly be responsible for the return of my horses here." This energetic idea helped, and on 23 May the regiment moved to Canton Boulay on the Right Mosel-user, to the east of the Reed, the first Lieutenant-Lieutenant Scheffer had recognized beforehand the purpose to occupy this position.
On the 24th of May, by the Kurprinzen, the deputy commanded Oberfeldherrn, Field Marshal Barclay de Tolly, one, the Hessian troops in the district between Luxembourg, Trier, Diekirch and Echöneck. On the 29th of May the main quarter of Sierck came to Grevenmachern, on the 30th to Echternach. The Hussars' regiment left Boulay and the surrounding area on May 29, and moved from Canton Diekirch to the Departements in the Canton on June 1. Diekirch: Staff and part of the body Escadron. Ettelbrück: Rest of the body Escadron; Moestorff, ReiSdorff, Eppeldorff; Escadron Cornberg; Folkendingen, Stegen, Medernack: Escadron Eschwege; Bettendorf, Tandel, Bastendorf: Escadron Baumbach; Feulen: Hospital.
1) May 29 Bletange and Environs, 30 May Roussy and Environs, May 31 between Luxembourg and Bofferdingen.
Although the Canton of Diekirch exuberantly surrendered to oats, Lieutenant Colonel Scheffer nevertheless asked for permission from 6 to 8 pounds of hay. "The horses are very collapsed, cannot survive with three pounds, especially since they are larger than the Prussian Hussars."
This ration was the responsibility of the Obercommando and nothing seems to have been changed.
On the 8th of June, the Prince of Prussia, returned from Paris, received the information that the Hessian troops would again be under the command of General Kleist, and to march home on the 17th of June. While the Hessian garrison of Luxemburg remained there until the 8th of July, the Hussars and the other troops marched over Trier, Coblenz, Marburg to Hesse on the 17th of June, and arrived at Cassel on the 4th of July.
After the last report of July 1, 1814, the regiment had the following strength:
The Kurprinz personally led the victorious returning troops (126 officers, 4060 men, 1675 horses) to the residence where they were received by the population in a jubilant manner. On this day, his electoral prince of the Elector gave a most honorable proclamation to his troops, expressing their gratitude and full respect for their achievements.
The Period from July 1814 to April 1815
After the entry ceremonies, the Hussars' Regiment of Cassel moved provisionally to the area between Gudensberg and Homberg, and on the 6th of July it occupied the following cantons: Stab1 und Leib-Escadron Homberg, 2. Escadron (Cornberg) Kaßdorf und Holzhausen, 3. Escadron (Eschwege) Gudensberg, 4. Escadron (Baumbach) Hebel und Unshausen.
It now retired against 190 horses, and escadron to the strength of ten officers, one surgeon, six carabiners, eighty hussars, one mounted blacksmith. A real demobilization does not appear to have occurred, even if the regiment was placed on the peace budget in mid-July (Escadron 100, regiment 400 horses incl. Surgeons, mounted blacksmith and staff trumpeters). An Order of the Elector of September 8, 1814, ordered that the regiments of the mobile corps should have been ready to move out and maneuver for the Kurprinzen of Hesse. The Hussars regiment is now reunited with Fritzlar. "This maneuver must, however, have been held in the region between Kirchhain and Ziegenhain, since a later order instructs the Hussars Regiment of September 11 to the following localities: Kirchhain, Neustadt, Watzbach, Erksdorf, Speckswinkel, Momberg, Mengsberg, Wasenberg, Leimbach.
On 17 November of that year, the regiment occupied its garrisons in Fritzlar, Gudensberg, and the surrounding area, and they were staffed by: Fritzlar, Leib Escadron: Fritzlar, Zennern, 2. Escadron: Lohne, Haddamar, Geismar, 3. Escadron: Gudensberg. Beffe, 4. Escadron: Wabern, Harle.
At the same time, 1 Wachtmeister, 2 Quartermaster, 13 Corporale, 1 Trumpeter, 13 Hussars, and 32 Horses of the Stabswacht were replaced by the Regiment and replaced by up to 13 men and 16 horses who had been hired on the sidelines, were now on leave, 65 horsemen, who were hired on the whole.
In the quarters quoted, the regiment had time to recover from the efforts of the Campagne, to help the horses, and to train the young men according to the new Exercir Regulations. As an exception, some officers, such as von Ochs, von Boyneburg, von Heusinger, had been endowed by the end of the bathing holiday for the restoration of their health.1
1) The officers' forfeiture was no longer in the nature, but in money. For ration and month, although the commander was very much related to the first species. - The delivery of the forage to the troops was awarded by the public submission.
The winter rest did not last long. - As early as January 1815 moved 2 Escadrons (Leib and von Baumbach) had their leave to march through Gilserberg, Giessen and Friedberg to Hanau, where they were in contact with the 1st and Fusilier Battalion of the Regiments Kurprinz and Landgraf Carl and the 3rd battery of the artillery Regiments until the outbreak of the new war.
In the Officier Corps the following changes had taken place until the spring of 1815: Chief of Staff Captain Klenze (4 December), Premier Lieutenant Laporte (26 July), and Escadrons-Chirurg Wackernagel (March 1815), Farewell, Premier Lieutenant Meder, who had already missed the whole campaign on sick leave in Coblenz, died on January 18, 1815, at Cassel at the Auszehrung.
The regiment received an increase from the rank of General-Lieutenant-Lieutenant von Lehsten (6 November), and Count Carl Ludwig von Hessestein2, who had been appointed by the Russian service, was appointed to the wing adjutant of his Electoral Prince and Rittmeister a la suite of the Hussars' Regiment (21st September); Saber-Junker Wörndel was also promoted to the rank of a non-commissioned officer (March 21, 1815).
2) 1806 Second Lieutenant in the regiment.
Napoleon's sudden return to France, in March 1815, put the allied powers into the greatest suspense. Immediately, on the basis of the peace of Paris, martial measures were decided to render the enemy of Europe harmless. Austria, Prussia, Russia, and England, undertook to set up 150,000 men each, while the rest of the States would do their utmost to secure their aid.
On March 19, the Prussian Minister of War of Boyen asked the Elector of Hesse to support the just cause, upon which the Elector secured him 10,000 men, which he later increased to 12,000 men. On March 28th, an order of the elector appeared, that a corps under General von Müller should immediately march down and merge into the Blücher army. The marshal's regiment, among others, was part of the brigade of Müller, which, as mentioned, was partly situated at Fritzlar, partly at Hanau, in cantonments.
On the 28th of March, an order of the elector appeared, that a corps under General von Villene should immediately march down to the Blücher army. The Müller Brigade included, among other things, the Hussars' Regiment, which, as mentioned above, was, in part, at Fritzlar, partly at Hanau, in Cantonnings.
From the 1st of April, the regiment was placed on the war budget which had been somewhat reduced by 1814, and Lieutenant Hailig was appointed commander of the depot at Gudensberg.
According to the Kriegsstagebuch of the regiment the Fritzlarers marched two Escadrons on the 6th of April and reached Weilburg via Jesberg and Giessen on 10 April. The Hanau two Escadrons (Leib-Escadron and von Baumbach) entered their march on Frankfurt on 9 April, and on 11 April the Regiment at Camberg merged, from where it went to Limburg. On the following day, 19 chariots came for the regiment, and were executed at Aalbach among the Officers on the 13th of April. "
The diary records, on the 12th of April, the day of rest for the sake of the saddles, as is determined at any rate by the internal arrangement: "The strength of the marched-up regiment is 22 officers, 57 officers (1 of which are overcrowded), 44 carabiners, 2 surgeons, 13 trumpeters, 4 flag fighters, 413 hussars, 23 servants, 537 troop horses, 19 officier charge horses, 12 wagon-horses. Further, Count Hittmeister, Countess Hittstein, and Chief of Staff, Aolontair von Verschuer, of the Leib Escadron.1
1) Lieutenant-Gage, who had been vacated with the death of the First-Lieutenant-Meder, was granted the latter, and the Second-Lieutenants-Gage was granted under the 4th of April, and the permission to participate in the Hussar regiment.
Esc.-Chir .: Hon. W. Eberhard, Chrn. PH. Brand, Heinrich Endres.1
(1) It is not possible to see from the records who was the 4th escadron surgeon in the regiment; the state calendar erroneously mentions wackernagel; only the farewell to the escadrons of the surgeon's cousin, Albrecht, and Troß in 1816 is shown.
The troops of General von Müller (1st and Fusilier Battalion of the Regiments Kurprinz and Landgraf Carl, Grenadier-Bataillon Haller, Jäger-Battalion, hussars, Leib-Dragoons and 1 foot battery) received orders from the General von Kleistz)2, to whom she was a part of the North German Confederation were to refer to Cantonements at Langenschwalbach and to more orders to wait. The Hussars-Regiment, in consequence, advanced on the April 13 in the Graffchaft Katzenelnbogen, where it is until the end of the month extensive quarters related. (Staff: Katzenelnbogen and 16 localities). This time was diligently used to be used in the Escadrons and Regiment-Berbande to exercise. "The regiment has been reoccupied for a long time first together on horseback, even the attack was made and powdered fired ", as is recorded in the diary on 18 April.
(2) At the moment of the declaration of war, General von Kleist stood with 30,000 men between the Rhine, the Meuse, and the Moselle.
After the right bank of the Lahn had been cleared of the Hussars to protect the country, the Hessian troops were mustered by General von Kleist on the 26th of April. The Hussars' Regiment was at ten o'clock in the morning at Bettendorf, behind Nastadten, and the source quoted above says: "General von Kleist was in the most loving manner with almost all officers and officers, and, after inspecting the Regiment, in step and trot, had made a speech to the officers as well as to the troops, in which he gave his very special satisfaction. He declared, among other things, that even in Prussia no more beautiful and better Hussar regiment could be shown, and that he would gladly approve the proposals which our commander would make, and contribute to our best. "
In the papers there is an interesting letter on this review, which Lieutenant Colonel Scheffer addresses to the Chief Staff of Gilsa3.
3) Probably Henry of Gilsa, at that time Wings Adjutant of the Kurprinzen.
The same is true:
“Holzhausen near Nastädten, d. April 27, 1815. Yesterday we had a review of General von Kleist, one of the happiest days of my life. The regiment had fallen inexpressibly to him, and he repeated several times:
"No, the king has no regiment, I have been told a great deal about it, but this is my expectation." He had always held me by the hand, and rode before the regiment, and Nassau's oats had done the horses very well. In the morning I march to Haddamar, go to Kleist for two days, then take oats for five days, and go over the Rhine to Luxembourg, and look forward to seeing our horses.”
It is clear from this letter how good the horses were, and how excellent the formation of the regiment must have been, which, with respect to the campaign in 1814, the longer detachment of individual escadrons, and the early season, were a very good sign for material and discipline.
The time before the beginning of the warfare was properly used by the army leadership, the troops as much as possible, to feed and to practice.
Thus the Hussars changed again on the 1st of May, and were placed in the Nassau office of Hachenberg (staff: Dierdorf and 25 places), but from there on the order of the commandant of the Kurhessian troops, Lieutenant-General Engelhard to churches, a rich area of the Westerwald.
The regiment exercised diligently in detail and in escadrons, on foot and on horseback, and the cavalry brigade (body dragoons and hussars) was united under Prince Frederick William of Hesse, who a few days later inspected the regiment. In addition, each cavalry regiment commanded 1 subordinate officer and four men at headquarters, and placed four sub-officers and eight men on relay posts.
Before the Hessian troops cross the Rhine, it is necessary to briefly discuss the measures of the allies.
As a result of the Mainz closed on March 25, 1815, four armies were to be set up against France, and from Italy two flank corps proceeded.
The four armies were:
1) The English-Hanoverian-Dutch army in the Netherlands, under Field Marshal Duke of Wellington (100,000 men and 31 batteries).
(2) The Prussian or Low-Rhine Army (4 Army Corps), under Feldmarschall Prince Blücher (135,000 men and 41 1/2 batteries).
3) The Russian army on the Middle Rhine under Field Marshal Graf Barclay de Tolly (150,000 men and 53 batteries).
4) The Upper-Rhine Army under Field Marshal Prince Schwarzenberg (Oestreicher, Bavaria, Süddeutsche rc.) (More than 200,000 men and 65 batteries). On the whole about 600,000 men and 190 1/2 batteries.
Kurhessen committed himself (according to the treaty with Prussia of May 4, 1815) to place 12,000 man lines, 6,000 man reserve troops, and to raise a land storm in the emergency of the interior of the country. The Linist groups were allotted to the North German Confederation under the command of the Prussian General von Kleist, and it consisted of:
1. Brigade (Kurhessen), Major General Prince Solms-Braunfels.
2. Brigade (Kurhessen), Major General of Müller.
3. Thuringian Brigade, Major General von Egloffstein. (Containing all the troops of the small federal estates).
4. Brigade (Mecklenburger), General Lieutenant Erbgrassherzog of Mecklenburg-
Brigade of Artillery (Kurhessen and Mecklenburger), Prussia. Major vonBarde-life.
Brigade of the cavalry (Kurhessen and Mecklenburger), Brigade Chief Major General of Marburg, Commander-in-Chief Prince Frederick William of Hesse.
The strength of the army corps was thirty battalions, twelve escadrons, and two batteries with about 26,000 men and 20 guns. Of these, Kurhessen formed the nucleus with 11 battalions of infantry, 1 hunter-battalion, 8 escadrons, two batteries, and one park-column with about 12,000 men.
The commander of the Kurhessen Corps was General-Lieutenant Engelhard; the 1st Colonel (General von Müller) had marched out of Hesse on the 5th of April, and the 2nd (General-Major Prince Solms) on 21 April; both, as we have already seen, are situated on the right bank of the Rhine, in the region of Coblenz.
The north German federal corps, which was gathered between Lahn and Sieg, had the task of establishing itself at Trier, and filling the space between the Lower-Rhine and Upper-Rhine Army until the arrival of the Russians. With the rapid mobilization and the many contingents, it is clear that the corps of uniformity and equipment left much to be desired. Thus there was a lack of cavalry and artillery, of which only 12 Escadrons and 20 guns were the men of 26,000 men. The different training of the conscientious troops was also an aggravating circumstance for the leadership. The spirit among the troops was generally excellent. Under these circumstances the Corps arranged the Rhine on the 11th of May, with the intention of marching to Trier, and the connection with the Bavarian Corps Wrede and the 3rd Prussian Corps. The war diary of the Hessian Hussars regiment reports that day: "As the Rhine was to be crossed at eight o'clock, Rendez-vous of the regiment was at Rischeid five o'clock in the morning, so that a few Escadrons had broken out of the Cantonies one o'clock in the morning. General von Kleist and General Engelhard looked at the regiment, which now marched in large numbers, at Ehrenbreitstein.
Most of the villages are situated in mountains; the local area has terribly indescribable deep valleys, which can only be passed through rocky mountain paths. Staff at 10, 2. Escadron (Monnebach rc.) Only at 12 in the lodging. Some Escadrons were thus on the road for 22 hours and had a march of 17 hours. Beilig is located 7 hours from Coblenz. No wonder when a lot of horses are pushed and run aground. "
The Hessian troops formed on the march to Trier in two columns:
Column Prince Solms left,
Column General Müller right Moselle bank.
Among the latter were the Leib-Dragoons and the hussars.
Column Müller crossed the Rhine at Braubach, Sanct Goar, and Caub on the 11th May and moved on to the following march on the following march:
Staff and Body Escadron Conz, 2. Escadron Monnes and Hedgehog, 3. Escadron Wafserlich, 4. Escadron Hamm and Environs.1.
1) On the 16th of May, the regiment on the market in Trier, before the General von Kleist.
On the 17th of April, as the chief journal of the electoral army of 1815 reports, a list was taken at the border with the enemy's observation. The right wing was to connect with the 3rd Prussian army corps (near Arlon-Bastogne) by the Thuringian brigade, and the left wing with the Nahem (right Saar-Ufer-Losheim). Oberstlieutenant Scheffer was advanced on the road to Sierck-Thionville to Kirfs with three Escadrons (body, 3rd, and 4th) hussars and two company hunters. From Kirff, detachments to Münzingen, Sinz, and Freudenberg preceded the observation of the region between the Saar and the Moselle, especially the transitions over the Mosel, and was connected with Losheim. The 2nd Escadron (Cornberg) came to Grevenmacher to advance small detachments against Remich and Luxembourg.
Oberstlieutenant Scheffer received the instruction to return to Conz in the event of a serious attack on the left bank of the Saar; but if the enemy came on the right bank, Scheffer should not be cut off from crossing the Saar by retreat to Conz.
The main quarters and staff quarters of the Cavalry Brigade were in Trier. From the enemy stood a corps of about 16,000 men under General Count Gerard at Thionville, and was observed by the 3rd Prussian army corps between Luxemburg and Meuse. The French troops nearest to the Hessian army were commanded by General Hugo (Governor of Thionville in 1814).
On the 17th, Oberstlieutenant Scheffer announced the establishment of his outposts, and at the same time wrote to General von Müller: "The border is quiet, Sierck is strongly entrenched, there are 130 cuirassiers. General Hugo is again Governor of Thionville; since I know it in detail from Spain, I would like to send him a messenger, and write a private letter to him, that this messenger must be a very mischievous man, since on this occasion he might be able to discover many interesting facts. "
The allied troops were strongly advised, but no hostilities with the French should be begun, and the frontier should not be exceeded.
On 18 May, Kirff was occupied by a detachment of 60 Bavarian Chevaux-legers. Oberstlieutenant Scheffer, therefore, changed his dislocation as follows: Stabsquartier Saarburg; Leib-Escadron Saarburg, Freudenberg, wide; Escadron Eschwege Sinz, Beuren, Münzingen; Escadron Baumbach Faha, Orschwood, Oberleuken, Keßlingen. Eschwege turned Pikets to Hellendorf and Perl, Baumbach to Dinsdorf.
On the 19th Scheffer made small changes in his positions, and the Escadron Cornberg still occupied Remich1. On the 20th the Escadron Eschwege was commanded, on the right bank of the Saar, by the command of General von Kleist, to the detachment of Major Bödicker2, and received the outpost line Kraemerath (1 Rittmeister, 3 Officier, 90 Horses), Britten (1 Officier, 30 horses), Hentern (1 officer, 18 horses), Nieder- and Ober-Cerf (6 horses each), Baldringen (14 horses); the Escadron of the body stood on the right bank of the Moselle (Sinz rc.) On the 21st, Scheffer's detachment took a more concentrated position: Stabsquartier Beuren; Leib-Escadron Bütschdorf (later Kreuzweiler), Nenning, Berg and Schloßbübingen with post to Perl and Baesch; Escadron Baumbach Sinz, Mensingen, Beuren, distance.
1) On this day the regiment, like the other cavalry, received the heavy ration with 12 pounds of oats, 6 pounds of hay, and 4 pounds of straw.
2) Major Bödicker had been advanced on the right bank of the Saar with two company hunters and 50 body dragoons, while Colonel Scheffer, with the avant-garde of the corps on the left bank, had advanced.
While the security service was handled in the most active manner, also for rapid backward connection, the news of the enemy said that its strength about 4000 men and the cavalry was unsurpassed, the French too should have received severe orders not to catch any hostilities. On the 23rd, the picket in Perl (Leib-Escadron sent reinforcements to the Jost left flank and to the ferry at Schingen. As a result of arriving news that seven thousand Frenchmen had marched from the camp at Saarbrucken against Thionville and had camped at Bouzonville, attention was doubled.
The posts of Baesh and Perl (Leib-Escadron) were conscripted, the detachment in bolts marched to Kirfs; along the Römerstrasse stood the main picket. (According to the diary a large field guard of 1 officer, 12 hussars and 24 hunters). Nevertheless, everything remained quiet as in peace, only two Hussars patrols were fired while crossing the border beyond Jost.
The lack of food in the poor area forbade a closer gathering of the troops. Oberstlieutenant Scheffer, who lodged his quarters on the 6th of June to Thorn (half an hour from Beuren), came through energetic complaints that provisions and forage were received from the Saarburg magazine; as well as 1 battalion infantry to facilitate the post-office service.
In the first days of June, new messages were received from the enemy. The so-called Mosel Army under General Lieutenant Görard and four Under-Generals were to include 12 infantry regiments, one thousand men, four Dragoon regiments 300 men, one chasseur and one hussars regiment, as well as a considerable number of national guards. The main quarter was Metz, the army had a position from Saargemünd to Longwy; the cavalry would be fairly distributed, all the border posts occupied, Sierck, Rodemacher, Hachenberg, Maison Rouge strongly entrenched.
These very exciting communications were soon followed by the announcement that the enemy was to send all troops to the Netherlands, and to keep only national guards. The French seemed to have left the border posts on the 14th of June, in order to reconnect with their northern army. The concentration of the French army in the region of Namur, as well as the advance of Napoleon across the Belgian frontier to the north, prompted Feld Marshal Blücher to order the north German Federal Corps to bump into Armed and Bastogne to Namur to the Prussian army.
Unfortunately, this order did not begin until the hostilities had already begun, and reached the main quarter of General von Kleist on June 16, too late to allow the corps to participate in the decisive battles.
General von Kleist laid down the commander-in-chief to the great regret of all his subordinates, and now General Engelhard interposed the Corps. On the 16th of June Trier, on the 16th of July, issued a Corps order in the Headquarters of Trier, in which he stated:
"On the 17th of June, the Corps of Corps assembled at Grevenmachern, the infantry bivouaced, the cavalry and artillery can be cantonned. Scheffner, the Oberstlieutenant, also took up the avant-garde on June 17, marched along the Moselle at Remich, and at the same time applied narrow cantonments to Luxembourg. On the same day, he will send an officer to Luxembourg to disarm the troops in the towns not yet occupied by the garrison of Luxembourg, and, as this is done, to send another officer to the headquarters next to Grevenmachers tomorrow morning.
The fusilier battalion of the regiment Landgraf Carl encounters the avant-garde under Colonel Scheffer; the escadron of the cavalry regiment of Baumbach from the Hussars regiment meets the Major Bödicker, the escadron of the cavalry commander of Cornberg to Lieutenant-Colonel Scheffer.
The division of troops under Major Bödicker passed the Moselle on the 18th of June, and in the evening came to the corps near Luxembourg.
The troops march with the complete 6-day stock of food and forage. All of the troops which had been supplied by the local magistrates with their iron stock so far receive a further three-day demand for bread and forage; the regiments rc. rc. and the Hussars' regiment do so in Saarburg or on receipt from the quarters. Fourage must be packed, at least for 2 days sufficient, on the horses.
The wagons of the avant-garde (Oberstlieutenant Scheffer and Major Bödicker) pass the Moselle on the 17th of June near Trier. The Corps, on the right, marched off from Grevenmachern on the morning, to march against Luxembourg in the morning, whereupon the further instructions were received. The march is carried out in the Oratory Lutaille.
Main quarter on the 17th Grevenmacher, on the 18th in Luxembourg.
Main district Trier, June 16, 1815.
signed Engelhard, Gen.-Lieut. "
According to this command, the march on grevenmakers was launched on 17 June. A part of the outposts (disguised by Bödicker, Escadron Baumbach) obscured the movement, and the rest took over the avant-garde (Fusilier battalion Landgraf Carl, 2 Jäger' Companies, Escadron and Escadron Cornberg) and passed on ferries and boats the Mosel near Remich. The avant-garde occupied cantonments before Luxembourg, the hussars in Jtzig and the surrounding area. Major Bödicker went to the Corps near Luxembourg on the 18th at two o'clock, with one battalion infantry, two company hunters, the Escadrons Baumbach, and Eschwege as an armed guard. He had advanced with the avant-garde against Longwy; the outposts occupied a semicircle of Nieder-Kerschen over Aubange, Halanzy, St. Leger, Chatillon to the other side of the river Semoy. On this day, the cavalry of the armed guard cantonned Bonnevoye and Hollerich.
The cantonment in Hollerich resp. the bivouac at Merl was therefore of particular interest to the Hessian troops, as on 18 March 1814 these French villages had been overthrown, and Lieutenant Mauritius, with 19 hussars, broke a check. On the passage through Luxembourg, the troops defiled before the governor of the fortress, Princes of Hesse-Homburg. While on the 17th and 18th of June it had rained continually, so that the roads were almost groundless, the march was continued on the 19th with better weather against Arlon.
The avant-garde generally retained the position of June 18, and was ordered to display the outposts from the right bank of the Semoy to Habay la neuve (H.-Q. Mesanzy).
The bivouac of the Great was in the night of June 19-20, on the road to Bastogne, 3/4 hours beyond Arlon, the two Escadrons of the Arrieregarde lay in Arlon and Heischling.
On the afternoon of the 20th of June, at six o'clock, the Corps broke up against Bastogne as a result of disturbing news. The Escadron Eschwege was prescinded against Darnach, Stabs-Rittmeister von Verschuer with 30 horses to Bastogne. At midnight, the troops on the other side of Mardelange moved into a bivouac, while Scheffer and Bödicker moved into their posts, and, as an armed guard, followed the main line. Oberstlieutenant Scheffer received the command of the rearguard (1st, 2nd, and 4th Escadron Hussars, Fusilier Battalion Kurprinz, Fusilier Battalion Landgraf Carl and Hunter Battalion) and collected the same between Arl. "The rain was terrible, and all the troops were drenched," reports the diary of the regiment.
At three o'clock the following morning was broken up, "again under pouring rain, one of the most arduous marches of the campaign." The avant-garde and side patrols could not get anything from the enemy to the troops, which was absolutely necessary and Bastogne, a small Belgian town, the rider of Berschuer, with his 30 horses, was sent to Marche, and the armed guard under Scheffer was cantonned in Vellervux, Assenvis, Sibret, Homprs rc.
On the evening of the 21st of June, the news of the victory at Belle - Alliance and the complete defeat of Napoleon, and at the same time the order of Bliicher, to march across Neufchateau to the French frontier, and the fortresses of Sedan and Bouillon.
The Hessian Corps accordingly broke up against Seda on the 22nd, while the Thuringian brigade (including 1 EScadron of Hessian body dragoons and 2 Hessian guns) marched to Bouillon. On the advance of Vaux against Reufchateau, Oberstlieutenant Scheffer led the avant-garde, the Rittmeister of Eschwege and von Berschuer commanded to approach the bivouac of the Great at NeufchLeteau. The avant-garde moved across the city at Montplainchamp and Grandfontaine and sent patrols to Chiny and Lieutenant Echaumburg.
On the next day, when the weather and weather were bad, Florenville was reached and bivouaced near it, close to the French frontier. Oberstlieutenant Scheffer had detained in the right flank, with the Leib-Escadron, to Muno, Lieutenant Mauritius, in order to secure the troops.
On June 24th the march against the fortress was prompted as follows:
In the morning, the avant-garde broke out from the bivouac in the following order: 1 Escadron Hussars, 2 Jäger Company, 2 Escadrons Hussars, Fusilier Battalion Regiment Kurprinz, 1/2 Company Prussian Pioneers, 2 guns, Fusilier Battalion Regiment Landgraf Carl. 1 officer, 30 men infantry, 1 officer, 6 hussars behind the car for police supervision. After the avant-garde had cleared many obstacles and other obstacles, the main line crossed the French frontier with a hurrah-cry and sounding play at about 4 o'clock in the morning.
The avant-garde now reached Carignan, found this town unoccupied, and the magistrate opened the gates to the lieutenant of Ochs with twelve hussars. It was marched through and the road to Mouzon, which also equaled. While Mouzon and Carignan were occupied by the avant-garde under Major Bö, Colonel Scheffer, with his three escadrons, passed through the Meuse, in the direction of Sedan and Mezieres, by way of the bridge, which could not be traced. Lieutenant Mumm patrolled against Montmedy and brought with him one officer and four men as prisoners. Premier Lieutenant Schaumburg was dispatched to Stenay at the same time, with about 30 men, where he pushed 800 men into national guards and mounted gendarmes. He also reported that there were stronger enemy troops at Billy, east of Mouzon, who were connected with Ia Ferte sur Chiers and Stenay. These troops will probably have been parts of Vandamme's Corps. Appropriate measures were taken on this report, but no concern was given to the enemy.
While Colonel Scheffer, on the left bank of the Maas, carried out his reconnaissance against Sedan, the Gros Bazeille reached south-east of the fortress on the right bank, almost at three o'clock in the afternoon.
Here, on the Tete of the Great, Eschwege's master, with his escadron, wanted to prevent a number of national guards from entering the fortress. There was an unsuccessful fight, with the Escadron a horse was killed. On the left bank of the Meuse it was happier. Scheffer, with his three escadrons, had marched over Remilly to Wadelincourt, had the Hussars here, and rode with the Captain of Baumbach, and five men, to reconnoitre the bridge before Sedan. As soon as the small squad showed up, he received fire, which was why Rittmeister von Baumbach ran with two trains. There appear from Mezivres in Torcy, the western suburb of Sedan, 50 to 60 enemy gendarmes and Douaniers. While Lieutenant-General Scheffer, with his Leib-Escadron, goes into the flank and cuts off the retreat, Rittmeister von Baumbach immediately attacks them with about forty hussars, kills 12 enemies, or wounds them, makes 8 prisoners, 11 prey horses and bursts the rest the hussars had no loss, and on the other hand Captain von Baumbach and quartermaster Faust were distinguished. As a surrender was refused by Sedan, the corps took a bivouac between Bazaille and la Moncelle. Oberstlieutenant Scheffer withdrew his hussars in the evening to Remilly, leaving a mobile field guard of 100 horses at the height of Fresnoy. The rest of the avant-garde had occupied a position near Mouzon, where Scheffer again took over the command in the evening.
Since the position of Scheffer, leaning on his back against the Meuse, was not without danger, and the princes were made unobtainable by the enemy, he took the hunters and the infantry of the infantry on the 25th, and made a bridge between the pioneers at Remilly, so as not to be cut off.
The position of the troops was as follows: Staff and 2 Escadrons, Leibbach and Baumbach, 1/2 Companie Hunters, 1/2 Company Pioneers: Remilly; 1 Escadron (Cornberg), 1/2 Company Jäger: Fresnoy; Fusilier Battalion Courier, l Company Jäger: Vadelancourt; Major von Bardeleben with Fusilier Battalion Landgraf Carl and 50 Hussars Mouzon, resp. Carignan.
From Fresnoy, 1 escadron had been advanced on the road to Mezioures, and Lieutenant Mauritius had been sent with some thirty hussars against Signy l'Abbaye to visit the left wing of the Prussian army. In the evening Bödicker advanced with the two Jäger-companies on the left bank of the Meuse towards Sedan, and during the night he made his way to the suburb of Torcy. The next morning a general rifle and gunfire from both rivers began to enter the fortress, forcing it to surrender. On June 27th a solemn entrance of the Hessian troops took place at Sedan, the Hussars at the Tete. Even if the citadel remained to the enemy, the capture of this town was a firm base for further operations. Sedan was to be occupied by the Oldenburg Regiment of the Thuringian Brigade1, and the Corps of Corps was to be marched to Meziornes on the following day.
1) The Thuringian brigade, which arrived at Bouillon on the afternoon of June 24, had left a regiment there and reached Sedan on the 26th.
A new avant-garde under Oberstlieutenant Scheffer (Jäger-Battalion, Fusilier-Battalion Regts, Kurprinz and Husaren-Escadrons Cornberg and Baumbach) had already entered Villers-dvt. Meziornes, and from this point had advanced small pickets against Meziornes. At night the news was heard of the fact that General Vandamme's forces had shown up close by. The troops were concentrated at a height behind Sedan, but the cavalry patrols sent no news from the enemy.
For the easier removal of the fortress of Meziornes, the newly appointed commander-in-chief, the Prussian Lieutenant-General of Hake, thought it necessary to get possession of the important outpost, Charleville. That is why Scheffer broke up against Charleville on the 28th of June with the Fusilier Battalion of Prince Solms, two company Jägers, and two escadron hussars (Eschwege and Baumbach) southward immediately. In the afternoon, at five o'clock, he reached west of the city and drove back the outposts by tirailleur fire, with the hussars making two prisoners. He bivouacked near the fortress, the infantry battalion at Warcq, having twice summoned the town to surrender, in vain, by his adjutant, Premier-Lieutenant von Ochs. The main column advanced with the avant-garde (Fusilier-Battalion Regiment Kurprinz, 2 Companies Jäger, 1 escadron Hussars) to Mohon, the largest after Billers dvt Meziöres, and included Mezivres on the left bank of the Maas. This advance was chiefly due to the important news of Lieutenant Mauritius, which had arrived in the early morning.1
1) Lieutenant Mauritius had been sent with instructions from the principal quarters on June 24, to seek out a connecting troops corps in the direction of Paris. In the night he fell, with his command, between the cantonment of Bandamme's cavalry, and had to requisition under the name without a sign and with his coats, without having to stop in a village. Under the fortifications of Laon and Chateau-Porcie n, which were still occupied by the enemy, he withdrew from the French cavalry, and, after the removal of many abuses at Soreon, dealt 5 Prussian escadrons under the Major von Falckenstein.- After exchange of mutual news, Lieutenant Mauritius returned from detours on the 28th to the regiment.
On the following day the generals of Hake and Engelhard recognized the position of Charleville, and came to the conclusion that the taking of this city was extremely advantageous. It formed a very important point, separated by the meas of Mezieres, under the cannons of the fortress, and occupied there. The attack was resolved, and Oberstlieutenant Scheffer was ordered to take the city. This mission was not easy, since Charleville was protected by high walls, encampments and pallisades, and under General Laplanche was about a thousand men, but most of them national guards. After about four o'clock in the afternoon, the Fusilier Battalion of the Electoral Electorate, two cannons, one howitzer, and one Prussian. Pioneer company, as the report states, Scheffer drafted his dispositions with "rare insight and order." The next attack, which was directed to the commander, as well as to the troops involved, among them the 3rd and 4th Escadron of the Hussars' regiment, can be regarded as a special honor, Scheffer's own words describe best.2 "The attack was at once resolved, the two guns were placed in the great road, the two Jäger companies advanced along the road through the trenches. The infantry stood on the street in a small depression, two compagnies in reserve, the right flank was covered by infantry, the left by a cavalry piket, so that the town was completely enclosed. The two Hussars-Escadrons, under Rittmeister of Baumbach, stood behind the road and between the two guns and the howitzer they covered.
2) From the Scheffers report of 30 June on the storming of Charleville.
The Major Bödicker began the attack, the cannons played on the severely torn Tbor, and the howitzer threw shells into the city. The gate, and the tower upon it, were, however, too massive, for the action of the cannon-shots to be very destructive. The enemy also fiercely attacked us through the shooting ranges of the Pallisades and behind the wall, even through all the windows of the barracks, and fired particularly at the great road. Also from the fortress Meziöres, shells were thrown at our guns and caused damage. Since our artillery fire had no great effect, I gave the command to Lieutenant von Ochs to storm. My command was most welcome to all the troops. Every one had an indescribable courage; the Jägers forward, the pioneer company, then the infantry in the storm step. By the mayor of Verschuer, I gave the hussars the order to enter the city as well. Even in the streets the enemy resisted, but all that could be accomplished was stabbed with the bayonet. The Rittmeister von Berschuer1 directed the attack in the strongest Choc, and his hussars hanged the head-guard, which still fired, down to the last man. The mayor of Baumbach conscripted the enemy by taking a road on the left, and made many prisoners. Everyone wanted to be the first, and courage and enthusiasm had no limits. The refugees were brought in and thrown down; only 50 men of line troops have saved themselves into the fortress, since the retreat was not to be prevented because they had gained time by breaking the gate. As soon as the city was stormed, white flags were pinned on all the houses, the National Guard saved itself as it could; but the troops at once occupied all the gates, and marched on the market-place. The city was defended by General La Planche with 1,000 men of national garde. This general, as well as 18 officers, and most of the national guards, are imprisoned. The loss of the enemy is very considerable; we have three dead and eleven horses, three dead and three horses. The loss of the hussars is five people killed, one dead, and three bombed horses. The flag of the National Guard and a massive eagle fell into our hands.
1) Rittmeister von Berschuer acted as adjutant of the Oberstlieutenant Scheffer, S. Hess. Hussar Reg. No. 14. II. Th.
I am very pleased that the glory of the Hessian troops has once again been illuminated by this affair, and is thus established by this happy event. "
In general, Lieutenant-General Engelhard published this report in a daily order to the Hessian troops of June 30, and admirably added that Oberstlieutenant Scheffer had acquired fame through his excellent leadership. Major Bödicker also praised the conduct of the hussars in his report of the battle, and the adjutant, Lieutenant von Ochs, had bestowed on him, whom he had sent several times, even in the strongest fire, to the gate.
Charleville was in the hands of the brave Hessen; In the evening, at 9 o'clock, the troops took a bivouac in front of the town, and Major Bödicker occupied it with a detachment in order to maintain order.
On the following day, Colonel Scheffer made his entry into Charleville, and quartered the troops in the city, advancing outposts against Meziornes.
The achievements of the two Hussars-Escadrons at the Waffenthat on 29 June are best shown in the lists which General Engelhard submitted to the Elector, in addition to the report on the capture of Charleville of His Royal Highness.1
1) According to the Ordinary Cabinet Ordinance of May 3, 1815, the "Electorate of the Electorate" and the "Highness of the Serene" were substituted for the electors. Priests: "King, High Highness" or "Highness".
The following were proposed for the order of the order: 1. Oberstlieutenant Scheffer (insight, prudence, servant, here and before); 2. Rittersmeister of Baumbach (commanded the two escadrons, cut in with great bravura, and made many prisoners, already formerly distinguished); 3. Rittmeister of Eschwege (directed the attack, cut down the guard, distinguished himself earlier); 4. The chief lieutenant of Ochs, adjutant of the colonel, Scheffer (fearlessness, with great danger, had to give orders to storm); 5. Wachtmeister Pfeffer (very brave soldier, shown here and at Sedanmuth); 6. Wachtmeister Sussmann (determined, courageous gesture); 7. Quartermaster Faust (at Sedan and formerly distinguished, his bravura seeks their peers); 8. Carabinier Fischer (the first to cut the guard, the Pallisaden rc., Already distinguished at Sedan). Oberstlieutenant Scheffer was appointed to the order pour Ia vertu militaire, the rest to the Iron Helm.
The favor of the Elector was recommended: 1. Chief of Staff of Verschuer (Volont.), Serving as an adjutant to the Colonel. Scheffer (calm and cold-bloodedness); 2. Premier Lieutenant Schaumburg (shown on several occasions of bravery); 3. Premier-Lieutenant von Lehsten (servant and courage in pursuing the enemy to the gates of Meziäres); 4. Lieutenant of Boyneburg (likewise); 5. Corporal Doll (supported the wounded); 6. Corporal Nau (when he smashed down a gendarme who fired at the hussars); 7. Corporal Scheve (great courage to pursue); 8. Carabinier Homburg (brave already at Sedan); 9. Husar Alienbrand (very good hussar, many examples of heroism).
On the 13th of June, 1815, Lieutenant-Colonel Scheffer received the order of Charlatille, the Order of the Iron Helmet, the Rittmeister von Eschwege, and von Baumbach the Iron Helmet IS. August Rittmeister Count Hessenstein, com. Captain, Pepper, and Carabinier Fischer, the Order of the Iron Helmet, the other proposed officers and men, a commendation.
With the capture of Charleville the north German federal corps had once again taken a step closer to its task. It was necessary now to reach the fortress of Meziornes, for which, however, many of the preparations and the battles of siege guns were made. needed.
The activity of the cavalry was now to patrol on all sides. In all other respects, horses and men were glad to enjoy some rest after the marches and the skirmishes of the last days, but they were not to last long.
On the 1st of July, Meziornes was mined, and the following are to be mentioned among the cantonments of the troops: the main quarter of Gen.-Lieut. by Hake Sedan; Main district of Gen.-Lieut. Engelhard Donchery. Huskren-Regiment: Staff and 3rd Escadr. (Eschwege) Charleville; 4. Escadr. (Baumbach) Launois; 2. Escadr. (Cornberg) Francheville and Mohon; Body-Escadr. le Fauyon Chau., Au-Court, Marancourt and Tendröcourt.
From the Hussars regiment there were two Escadrons on the left and one on the right bank of the Meuse near Mezisres, while 1 Escadron to the mobile Colonel of the Major Bödicker with the Fusilier Battalion Landgraf Carl and the Compagnie huntsman to Launois, 2 miles southwest of Meziornes, on the road to Rethel. The troops had to keep in touch with each other through patrols, and to observe mainly the streets; the mobile columns should collect messages, and all the cantons must be ready to march to the designated places. In Sedan, a hospital was built for traffickers, as well as magazines for Sedan, Charleville and Flize. The Hussars' Regiment was directed to the Prefecture in Charleville.
Before we discuss the other operations, it is time to remember the changes which have taken place since the Hussars' regiment had been deployed.
According to the Order of the Elector of June 2, the Chief of Staff of Verschuer was appointed adjutant to the General Staff at the headquarters of General Engelhard, for the adopted Major von Dörnberg, after he had already been commanded to headquarters on the 10th of May.
On the 13th of June, however, he returned to Scheffer's request, on account of the departing officers and the strong outpost service to the Hussars' Regiment, as General Lieutenant Engelhard reported; For this Rittmeister Graf Hessenstein, was ordered by the elector to be the suite of the named general.
On the 1st of July Scheffer, in a request to grant the Second-Lieutenants Wörndel and Laubinger Gage, appealed to the Chancellor, since "no gages were vacant."
The regiment had until now received a replacement: on the 19th of June, officier, 18 hussars, 5 servants, 17 horses from the depot (also 200 Breeches). Other access: 2 Hussars; Departure: 1 hussar with sick Horse in the depot back, 4 horses lost to snot (including 1 batch horse).
On the whole increase: 1 officer, 19 hussars, 5 servants, 14 horses. According to a report by Lieutenant Helwig, the depot in Gudensberg on June 1 was strong:
While all preparations for a formal siege were made before Meziornes, Colonel-General Scheffer received the order on July 5, with the Fusilier battalions of the regiments of Elector and Prince Solms, two Compagnies Jäger, two Escadron hussars, and two guns of the Schulthes battery to Laon to observe this fortress and to seek contact with the Prussians. At the beginning of the detachment, only the Escadron Eschwege was on the brink, and the Escadron Comberg was added at Neuf Maisons on the 6th of July. 2 Scheffer reached Rozoy en Thierache on that day, and pushed patrols over Laon to Montcornet, which was strongly fortified and occupied, At the same time, he had contacted the detachment of Bödicker, who sent a mixed patrol to Bourlemont.
1) The sick people of the depot were released in September.
2) Dieselbe was defeated by Mezisres by two Leib-Dragoner Escadrons.
Bödicker had a heavy post in Launoy, the Escadron Baumbach, especially in the paternal attitude of the inhabitants, with his weak troops.
On July 6th, Bödicker ordered General von Hake to occupy Rethel and then proceed against Rheims. The city was found abandoned by the enemy, and occupied at four o'clock in the afternoon, the troops occupied alarm quarters; Lieutenant Schaumiburg was advanced with 40 hussars to Tagnon on the road to Rheims.
In Rethel it was learned that in the last few days of June the Bandamme Corps had disappeared in great disorder on the retreat, and the French were in constant fear of being attacked by Sedan, which unfortunately had not been the case.
This failure had more to do with Drange Sedan. Charleville quickly, than in the lack of good enlightenment for Bandamme's Corps had been reported in time by the Hussars' regiment of the Lieutenant Schaumburg, by the reconnaissance patrol.
On the news that a French courier was on the way to Mezieres, Major Bödicker sent Lieutenant Woertel with ten hussars to catch it. This active officer also succeeded in taking the courier and at the same time a spy with papers at the village of Jsle. Lieutenant Wörndel escorted the two prisoners to General von Hake, who was very satisfied with the catch, and publicly thanked Lieutenant Wörndel, "as this officer is distinguished on every occasion by activity and prudence."
On the 7th, Bödicker left 1 Dsficier and 60 men in Rethel, and marched against Rheims. Lieutenant Schaumburg, with his 40 hussars, ascended from Tagnon to Rheims, and in the evening reached the detachment, which was with the fusilier battalion in Jsle, the huntsmen and Hussars in Witry (1 mile from Rheims) had lodged alarm lodgings.
The next morning at five o'clock, Bödicker slowly broke out to Rheims, as the support promised by the main quarter had not yet arrived. Lieutenant Wörndel was sent as a parliamentary official to move the city to surrender.
The Commandant did not enter into this position at first, but could be deceived by a trick of Boeckinger, by letting his troops emerge as a vanguard of a strong column, and finally agreed to a capitulation with a free deduction of the occupation. Lieutenant Wörndel accompanied the latter with 20 hussars to Soifsons.
At four o'clock in the afternoon the troops entered Rheims, reinforced by 1 battalion of the electorate and two guns. Major Bödicker occupied the city, and during his stay there sent 200 men of infantry, 18 hunters, and fifteen hussars for patrol. This possession continued until July 12, when Russian quarter-makers appeared; in spite of Bödicker's complaint, General Docktoroff of the Lambert Corps had his troops invaded Rheims, which had conquered the Hessians.1
1) Lieutenant Wörndel of the Hussars-Regiment, with the Russian Supreme Freytag, went as a courier in the main quarter of Hake.
There were various unpleasant quarrels, for both Hesse and Hesse claimed the right to occupy the town of Rheims. In the meantime Oberstlieutenant Scheffer, after a stronger reconnaissance against Laon (Escadron Eschwege), had proceeded with his detachment to Montcornet on the 9th of July. The news was that Laon would be defended by 4-5,000 men and 50 guns, and French troops would be in Soiffons and Rheims.
The Escadron Cornberg was sent against Rheims to make contact with Prince Wrede; the location was not safe. Then Scheffer was purchased by the General of Hake to occupy Rozoy with 1 battalion and 1 escadron, and march with the rest to Rethel as Repli for Boeckers.
On a new order, Scheffer had only one battalion in Rethel, and arrived with his column on the 13th of July, at ten in the morning, as a reinforcement in Rheims. Scheffer now took command of the two detachments (including three squadrons of his regiment) and had thus entered into a difficult inheritance, since the armies behaved very presumptuously, refusing, among other things, the hussars to the Fourage reception.
The Hessian troops withdrew from Rheims on 19 July and, according to higher dispositions, surrendered this city to the Russians. Major Bödicker marched to the Arrondissement of Rethel, Oberstlieutenant Scheffer with the rest (1 battalion infantry, 1/2 Company Jäger, 2 Escadrons and 2 guns) to Montcornet, with 1 battalion infantry, 1/2 Company Jäger and 1 Escadron Hussars (Baumbach) chiefly to oppose any excess of the Russians in these regions. The Detachment Bödicker cantoned in Jsles on the 19th and arrived at Rethel on the 20th. The place had already been occupied by the Russians, who treated the Fusilier-Battalion Regiment Elector, who had been vacillated there by Scheffer, with little comrades. Bödicker placed the Jägers and the Escadron hussars in the city, the rest near, and communicated very vigorously with the Russian commander. On the 23rd, orders were received that the huntsmen and most of the infantry of the detachments should take off from Bödicker and Scheffer to Meziornes, while Rethel would be occupied by the 1st Battalion Regiment Elector and an Escadron Hussar Baumbach.
Oberstlieutenant Scheffer, who again excluded his observation from Laon, had at last only the Fusilier Battalion of Prince Solm, one battery, and two Escadron's hussars among them; The latter lay in and around Montcornet.
On the 28th, Scheffer received the order to march with his troops to Rethel, in order to maintain order in the region; 2 Escadron's Mecklenburg Hussars under Major von Graevenitz dissolved him. The troops stationed in Rethel and Vouziers came under his command (2 battalions of infantry and 1 escadron).
According to the Kriegsstagebuch of the regiment Oberstlieutenant Scheffer ordered the following dislocation on 29th July: Stab and Escadron Baumbach: Rethel, Cornberg: Givry and Amagne, Eschwege: Juniville and Almcourt.
As a result of an order from the Obercommando to concentrate the very dismembered Kurhessian army corps on the left bank of the Maas, and to reduce the outstanding detachments, on 31st July Colonel Scheffer received only one battalion infantry (Fusilier-Bataillon Kurprinz) and three Escadron's hussars left and left by Stab and Escadron Baumbach: Rethel, Cornberg: Vouziers, Eschwege: Rethel and Romance. On all sides was diligently patrolled.
This period is connected with the history of the regiment, in as much as only the Escadron, who had been replaced by Escadron Baumbach in the last few days, was active. At first everything went quite quietly, on July 14 heavy weapon material arrived, and one soon began to be busy with the construction of batteries.
On the 25th of July, a very persistent levy took place at Mohon, in which the body of Escadron did not seem to have been concerned; same cantonned at this time in St. Laurent and Charleville. After an unsuccessful two-day bombardment, a formal siege had taken place, very disturbed by the vigilance of the sieges under General Lemoine. On the 31st of July the troops were partly dislocated in order to concentrate them more. The two Kurhessian brigades commanded only one Escadron cavalry, the Escadron of the Hussars' Regiment, whom the Chief of Staff of Heusinger commanded for the ill Ludwig; it came to Francheville and Mohon by order of General Engelhard. one of the bridges, which had been struck after the half-island of St. Julien, went on the evening of the 1st of August, with one officer and thirty-five hussars, and lodged behind the houses of the laureate. - Dieselians will probably have participated in the battles on the island on the night of the 3rd to 4th and on the 4th of August. At the same time, Premier Lieutenant von Baumbach was sent to the area of Saulces aux Bois with 30 horses and 12 Jägern to capture mutinous peasants. The Commando succeeded in capturing the gang in the village of Veauxmontreuil, and, after a strong retaliation, a hussar was wounded at the head, a farmer shot.
The continuing post-service, combined with great fragmentation and lack of foraging, had greatly affected the forces of the Escadron, and so it could only be welcomed by the Escadron Baumbach on the 4th of August.
After a renewed bombardment of all the batteries had taken place on the 9th of August, the following day came to the capitulation, which, in consequence of which, with the exception of the Citadel, Meziornes fell into the hands of the allies. 30 guns were the prey of the victors; the loss during the siege was 9 officers, 23 officers, and 205 men.
The service in front of the fortress had been exceedingly exhausting, but the case of it also of great value to the allies, since Meziornes was one of the first places among the strongholds in the north-east of France.
On the 14th of August, the General of Hake, in the presence of the French General Lemoine, and his staff on the island of St. Julien, held a review of the troops, the Meziores besieged, about 20,000 men. The Escadron Baumbach stood on the right wing of the cavalry (2 Mecklenburg and 1 Hessian Hussar Escadrons).
After the commander-in-chief gave his thanks to the troops, a great feast took place in the evening at Charleville. The Officier Corps received battalions, respectively. Escadron 100 Francs, each officer a bottle of good wine, the crew a portion of supplements.
There was now a resting-place, and the troops were partly displaced and moved into Cantonments in the Ardennes; the Escadron Baumbach went to Tourteron on August 14th, with which she approached the regimental alliance.
We had left Colonel Scheffer, with three escadrons, and one battalion, in the Arondiffements of Vouziers and Rethel, where he had kept the area in order by diligently patrolling. - After the fall of Mezieres, Scheffer was ordered to move with 2 escadrons in the Canton le Chesne, with 2 in the Canton Tourteron; the battalion returned to his regiment.
While the main quarter came to Bazeille, the Hussars' regiment received the following cantons on 17 August: Staff: Le Chesne; Leib- Escadron: Le Chesne, Tannay, Petites Armoises; Escadron Cornberg: Zuzanne, Ecardalle, Lamez; Escadron Eschwege: Brieulle, Chatillon for Haute; Escadron Baumbach: Tourteron, Neuville, Marquigny and Juincours.
The diary of the regiment reports: "From the 21st onwards, men are exercised on a daily basis, alternately on foot and on horseback." The rest period until the end of the month was very good for the horses, and was also used for the repair of the rc.
On the 21st of August, both Kurhessian brigades received orders to break up the fortress of Givet, to take possession of the Prussian armies. The Hessians came under the orders of Prince Augustus of Prussia, commanding the Prussian 2nd Army Corps. On the same day, the Prussian brigade of Bose arrived before Meziornes, but the handing over of the citadel had been prepared by the Hessians in such a way that the case had already taken place on the 3rd of September.
On the march to Givet the Escadrons Cornberg and Eschwege were allotted to the two Hessian brigades by the Hussars' regiment. The troops took an iron stock of food and forage for 3 days.
The dislocation for the march to Givet was: On 1 September
1. Brigade and Hussars: Novion and Territory; on the 2nd September 2nd Brigade: Sedan and Territory; Main district of General Engelhard: Boutancourt; 1. Brigade and Hussars: Maubert-Fontaine and area; on 3 September 1st Brigade in reserve position at Chimay - Rocroy; 2. Brigade with 2nd Escadron's Hussars marched on to Givet, Renwez (main quarters), Hussars Couvin; on the 4th of September 2nd Brigade: Couvin; 1st Brigade: Maubert-Fontaine (main quarter); on 5 September 2. Brigade: Before Givet; 1. Brigade: In Canton Chimay; Main area: Maubert-Fontaine.
After the arrival of the 2nd Brigade before the fortress of Givet, the troops were fed in the quarters; the vastness of the villages, as well as the poverty of the inhabitants, greatly aroused concern for the maintenance of the troops.
The two hussars-escadrons were thus returned from the region of Couvin, where they were probably detached to cover the right flank, on the 6th of September into the Canton of Remigny. Only one officer and twenty horses remained at the 2nd Brigade. The Prussian Cavalry (10th Hussars and Elb Landwehr Cavalry Regiment) provided the patrol service before Givet and Charlemont. The fortifications Givet and Mont d'Haurs on the right bank of the Meas fell into the hands of Prince August of Prussia on the 10th of September; a gunslinger entered, and the siege of Charlemont, already begun, was stopped by order of Blücher.
The 1st Hessian Brigade, advanced to Couvin, had marched into the Canton Rethel, the Second Brigade of Givet, into the old quarters of the 1st; on September 26, both brigades moved to the arrondissements of Vouzier and Rethel.
The two Detached Escadrons (Eschwege and Cornberg) had been in the area of Maubert-Fontaine (Canton Remigny) from the 8th of September, where Captain von Cornberg received orders on the 13th, 1 Unterofficier, 2 Carabiniers, 15 Hussars, and 18 Horses to command Rheims to accompany the Hessian art treasures (formerly stolen) sent from Paris to the town of Cassel, under the command of Lieutenant Veit. On September 15 the two escadrons marched to Aubigny and la Secleau; on the 26th they were placed in the center of the two brigades in the Canton Chaumont. General von Hake again took command of the two brigades; the cavalry became the resp. Brigades, the hussars of the second.
Let us now turn to the detachment of Lieutenant-Colonel Scheffer. The same had been replaced by 2 Prussian escadrons on September 4, and transferred to the Canton Machault. Staff: Machault, Body Escadron: Machault, Leffincourt and Courod; Escadron Baumbach: St. Etienne and Lavigne.
On the following day (9 September), Scheffer, on account of the lack of hay and water near Rethel and bHvg, marched the following quarters: Staff: Annelles; Body Escadron: Annelles, Bignicourt, Bille sur Retourne and Mont St. Remy; Escadron Baumbach: The Neuville-en Tourne L Fuy.
On the 8th, Scheffer was situated in the Canton of Monthois, on the 11th in Canton Grand-pre, on the 13th with the Staff in Signy le Grand.
On the 14th September, the detachment of Prince August of Prussia was ordered to march to the Montfauyon area, to observe Verdun fortress on the left bank of the Meuse, and to collect food for the siege corps of Montmedy (staff: Brieulle sur Meuse ). Here Scheffer does not seem to have come to any further activity, for the diary of the regiment reports:
"By September 30th, in order to use the arms rest, they were alternately on foot and on horseback. Until October 20, the exercise was continued. We were now given march orders, and marched on March 21st to Grandvs and Monthois to Marvaux, and on the 22nd to Machault and Juniville, to the new cantons. "
On the 23rd the two detached escadrons (Cornberg and Eschwege) arrived, and the regiment lay in the following quarters:
Canton Asfeld - Staff: Sault St. Remy. Leib Escadron: Sault St. Remy, Roizy, Houdilcourt and Poilcourt. Escadron Cornberg: Roisy, St. Remy le petit, l'Ecaille and Bergnicourt.
Canton Chaumont - Escadron Eschwege: Roquigny and area. Escadron Baumbach: Doumely, Romagne, Draize and Baigny.
These cantonments retained the regiment, which was finally united to the great pleasure of Scheffer, until it was ordered to march home.
If we look briefly at the other events by the end of October, Montmedy capitulated on September 19, Longwy, and the Citadel of Sedan, on the 15th of September, and fell into the hands of all the troops of the North German Confederation. Since on the 20th of September the order had arrived not to besiege the hostile fortresses, but only to block them, the campaign had in fact been completed in 1815, and the following period was a completely peaceful one. As a result of the advance of Prussian troops, changes in dislocation took place, but in the middle of October most of the old quarters were again occupied and the service was carried out as in the garrison.
In the Hussars Regiment the following changes had taken place since July:
At the beginning of the suite of General Lieutenant Engelhard Commander-in-Chief Rittmeister, Count Hessestein, was sent to the General Staff in the middle of July, and in August commanded to deliver the trophies to Cassel Depeschen and the trophies captured at Charleville (1 eagle and the flag of the National Guard) In September Hessenstein went to Paris and became, according to Allerh. Cabinet Order of King Frederick William III, 6th Versailles, September 16, 1815, into the Prussian army, and aggregated to the Pomeranian Hussar Regiment without salary. On the 1 st of October, Oberstlieutenant Scheffer, in a letter addressed to the elector of Sault St. Remy of October 27, proposed to Premier Lieutenant Gage, who had been vacant the Premier Lieutenant-Scheffer. The Regiment had gained an increase by the saber-junkers Claus, Meurer, and Suss, while Stabs-Rittmeister, Ludwig von Mtte, from September to mid-October, staggered with the horse in Lazaretb to Donchery and then went to Cassel to take leave.1
1) At the same time, a commando of 1 officer, four hussars, one horse to Cassel, returned to Montreung in Charleville.
General Lieutenant Engelhard reported to the Elector on September 30 that Ludwig was incapable of further military service because of the injury suffered. He asks at the same time to allow him to return to Cassel, and to give him a position in civilian service, with respect for his exemplary servant. In Louis, who had already been decorated with the Order of the Iron Helmet in 1814, the regiment lost an excellent officer and very capable Escadron chief.
Chief of Staff Ludwig von Gilsa led the Leib-Escadron, while a cousin of the same, Rittmeister Ernst Henry August von Gilsa, until now Adjutant of the Kurprinzen, was transferred to the regiment at the end of October.
But even the brave commander, Colonel Scheffer, was suffering and compelled to ask for bathing holidays. If he had been granted him to Spaa or Aachen by the elector for six weeks, Scheffer seems to have made no use of it, as soon as he returned.
The Colonel and Brigade commander, Prince Frederick of Hesse, who had been aggregated to the regiment, had at that time made a long holiday to Germany when the subordinate regiments were allotted to the infantry brigades.
On the 20th of August, the regiment received from the depot, in addition to individual volunteers with some horses, one saber-junker (sweet), one carabinier, four hussars, six servants, six horses.
The regiment, however, had seven sub-officers, six Carabiniers, 71 Hussars, and eighty-six horses, and Relay rc. Abcommandirt
On October 23, Lieutenant-General Engelhard ordered the troops remaining in France to be formed as a brigade under General von Müller. The Hussars' regiment was to have as many squadrons as would be required (regiment assumed to be 634 heads); in any case 1 regimental quartermaster, 1 auditor and 1 regimental surgeon should be present. The first provision, which was to remain in enemy territory until further notice of 6000 Hesse, was altered on the part of Blücher's main quarter in such a way that all the troops of the North German Corps were to keep themselves ready for march.
On the 1st of November, the order for the retreat of the corps over Trier, Coblenz, and the Rhine followed, on the 4th of November. Previously, Field Marshal Blücher, in an army order, Compiegne, on the 19th October, expressed his full gratitude to the North German Federal Corps for the achievements and the proofs of his old bravery. General von Hake made this order known, and also embraced this thanks, publishing at the same time various proofs of His Majesty's Majesty the King of Prussia.
Thus, among others, the Oberstleutenant Scheffer, for his conduct at Charleville, received the Order pour Ie Merite, and likewise Major Boehringer for Charleville and Meziornes. In addition, a two-month salary was paid to the troops as a part of the contribution to be drawn from France. The Hussars' regiment, under the command of the 2nd Brigade on 4 November, entered the commanded retreat, and that day was in the Machault area, on the 5th near Grandpre, on the 6th and 7th, in the area of Dun. On the 8th the regiment marched over the Meuse and over Lion through the Dagobert's forest to the area of Jametz. On the 9th the regiment went to Arlon, the 10th across the frontier to Luxembourg, where a review took place before General von Hake and the Governor Prince of Hesse-Homburg. At the same time, the Kurhessian corps received as a share of the conquered guns, a battery (3 four-pounder) and a four-pound howitzer along with four ammunition carts.
November 11 was a day of rest. The remaining districts of the regiment were: On the 12th Grevenmacher and region, on the 13th Trier and the region, on the 14th and 15th Dudenberg and area, on the 16th Gillenfeld and Kaisersesch, on the 17th Ulwen and Coblenz, , On the 20th district of Baffenheim, on the 21st district of Hehr, on the 22nd and 23rd district of Westerburg, on the 24th district of Mengerskirchen, on the 25th and 26th Herborn, on the 27th Niederweidebach, on the 28. Marburg, on the 29th Gilserberg, on the 30th
On the 1st of December, the regiment between Kerstenhausen and the Kalbsburg collapsed, and moved into his garrisons, ordered according to the order of the Elector of November 13th,
Staff according to Fritzlar,
Leib-Escadron to Fritzlar, Zennern and Geismar.
2. Escadron (Cornberg) to Fritzlar, Hadamar and Lohne,
3. EScadron (Eschwege) to GudenSberg and Beste,
4. Escadron (Baumbach) to Fritzlar, Werkel and Wehren.
The troops garrisoning in Cassel held their solemn entry into the residence on the second of December, joyfully greeted by the whole population. S. Königl. The supremacy of the Elector, in a special order of Cassel, proclaimed his most honorable acknowledgment and gratitude to the troops on the 1st of December, 1815, and promoted them by considerable gratuities.1
1 )It received: General Lieutenant Engelhard 3000 Rthlr .; General Prince Solms and Miiller, each 1000 Rthlr .: Brigade Commander Prince of Hesse 600 Rthlr. Oberstlieutenant Schesfer had a normal salary as a lieutenant-agent with 28 rthlr. for the body escadron (1 month); Escadron Chefs 50 Rthlr. for example, M .; Staff Rittmeister, Premier Lieutenant, Regiment Quartermaster, Regimental Surgeon 1 monthly salary as Premier Lieutenant after the peace budget 18 Rthlr .; Second-Lieutenants a de-gl. as Second-Lieutenant - 15th Rthlr .; Wachtmeister 2 Rthlr., Fourier, Sergeant, and Quartermaster, each 1/3 rthlr .; Corporals rc. 1 rthlr., Lance and common ground 2/3 rthlr. On the whole, 20,700 rthlr. paid.
Finally, a comparison of the strength of the regiment at the
for liberation war.
For example, Return march.
The report of 21 November 1815 reports:
The stronger budget of officers was explained by the arrival of Second Lieutenants Laubinger and Wörndel (April 19), and of the cavalry captain of Gilsa, the former adjutant of the Kurprinz (24 Oct.), by the repeated entry of volunteers with horses. In spite of this, the regiment lost so many horses as a result of exertion, fighting, sale, and snotness (about twelve) that the budget had not yet been laid back during the return march.
If we take a brief look back at the achievements of the Hussars during the war of liberation in 1814 and 1815, it was certainly very much to be acknowledged.
Re-formed under great difficulties and mobilized without sufficient training in the garrison, the regiment was sent into a winter campaign in 1814, which brought with it many hardships and heavy duty. The nature of the fortress in general is contrary to the use of cavalry. This was especially the case before Metz and Luxemburg, where a weak cavalry was dependent on a large area of security. The enemy of the rifle-weapon, the enemy cavalry, had been wholly lacked; the service was monotonous, and exhausting, and in contrast to the successes of the comrades before Paris, only small laurels could be picked. The year 1815 should not be much more favorable.
When the regiment reached the Kriegsschauplatz under happier conditions, the service remained essentially the same as in 1814. Instead of covering Metz, the Hussars saw themselves opposite the walls of Meziornes. The fragmentation of the regiment into individual Escadrons was even greater than in the first Campaign.
If, in these circumstances, the regiment has not only done its duty, but has often shown rehearsals of a real cavalry and great cavities, it may well be proud of its successes in these campaigns. The attack of the lieutenant Mauritius and the storm on Charleville will continue for all the hunts in the memory of the Hessian hussars.
Finally, a summary of the battles, losses and rewards should follow:
A. Belagerungen, Gefechte rc.
Siege of fortresses in Luxembourg, Thionville, Metz, and Longwy (1814); Mezieres and Givet (1815). March 28th, March 28th, March 28th), and Maizieres, near Metz (April 4), 1814. Carignan and Mouzon (24th March), and the French, June). Battle of Torcy (June 24). Taking Sedan (26 June). Storming of Charleville (29 June). Ingestion of Rheims (July 8). Recognition against Laon and Verdun, 1815.
SOURCE: Geschichte des königlich preussischen 2. hessischen Husaren-Regiments Nr. 14 und seiner hessischen Stammtruppen 1706-1886