Saturday, July 22, 2017

Husaren-Corps


Husaren-Corps
Landgraf Carl recognized the value of these mobile riders, and in 1702 he set up the first Hessian hussars' company of 54 horses under Major Bamfy at the beginning of the Spanish Succession War, in which Hesse-Kassel placed 8,000 men auxiliary troops for England and 3000 for Holland. Later, the Hussars were assigned to the "Prince Friedrich Dragoons" and the "Spiegelschen Reiter Regiment". In 1744, the Hussars became independent again and marched to Scotland. In the fighting around the Kilicranki Pass in 1746 they were able to stand out. In 1756, the hussars were fortified on four escadrons and mostly used together with the hunters. In 1758 they defended the village Bettenhausen and in 1759 they conquered four hostile standards at Tann. In 1763 they were reduced to an Escadron. In 1786 they were united with the Hanseatic Hussars to form a regiment. From 1792-94 they took part in the Revolutionary War, were part of the storming of Frankfurt, and broke through the Kronweißen lines in 1792 with a dashing attack under their commander, Prince Solms-Braunfels. In 1806, the hussars were disbanded.  


But as early as 1808 the Elector in exile established a new small group of hussars, which in 1813 was expanded to a regiment with four squadrons and fought at Luxembourg, Sedan and Charleville. In 1821 it became the 1st Husaren regiment, 1832 Leibdragoner, 1845 2nd Husaren regiment. It is used in Schleswig in 1849. During the occupation of Hesse-Kassel by the Prussians, the 2nd Hussars were the only Hessian troops who were in action at Aschaffenburg. After that she was the Prussian 2nd Kurhessische Husa-ren-Regiment No. 14 "Prince v. Hessen-Homburg "In the war against France 1870-71 was the squadron of the Rittmeister v. Colomb the first German troop in Paris. In the First World War the regiment was first in Belgium and as of 1916 in Poland as a cavalry-protecting-regiment "Prussia". In 1918, he returned from the Ukraine to his home country. To combat unrest in Silesia-Thuringia and Munich, the "Volunteers-Hussars-Regiment Hesse-Homburg" was formed from his teams in 1919. The "Reichswehr Cavalry Regiment No. 11" was created.



Source:
Nix wie weg ... die Hesse komme: Hessen-Kasseler Uniformen 1730 - 1789
Karl Trenkle
Verlag-Anst. Marburg, 2000


Friday, July 21, 2017

The Siege of the Fortress of Mainz 1793



Mainz is surrounded by German troops
Military events were of decisive importance for the history of the Mainz Republic. This applies both to their beginnings and to their end. The latter was launched in the middle of March 1793 with a German offensive. The French troops were soon pushed out in the direction of Alsace. On the Middle Rhine, only Mainz remained with her right hand, the head of the Bridget. In contrast to the autumn of the previous year when Custine had taken the city, the fortifications were in good condition, the magazines were filled, and with enough 23,000 men sufficient soldiers were available for the defense. 

The bombardment of Mainz from the Hochheimers heights.

The army of the attackers existed first Over 32,000, in July, finally, from over 44,000 soldiers. It was about Prussian, Austrian, Saxon, Hessian and Palatinate contingents under the supreme command of the Prussian General von Kalckreuth. His troops had closed the Siegeungsring around Mainz in the middle of April. It stretched right from the Rhine from Biebrich via Erbenheim and Hochheim to Ginsheim, on the left from Laubenheim via Hechtsheim, Marienborn and Finthen to Mombach. Three ship bridges united the individual parts of the siege armies, which initially did not have enough artillery and men to attack. There was, therefore, only a struggle between the fronts. Marienborn and Finthen to Mombach. Three ship bridges united the individual parts of the siege armies, which initially did not have enough artillery and men to attack. There was, therefore, only a struggle between the fronts. Marienborn and Finthen to Mombach. Three ship bridges united the individual parts of the siege armies, which initially did not have enough artillery and men to attack. There was, therefore, only a struggle between the fronts.


Fight between the suburbs
Among them were the (present) suburbs of Kostheim, Weisenau and Bretzenheim . While Kostheim, which was strategically important at the confluence of the Main River, changed its owner several times and was completely burned down, the Austrians and the French were forced to fierce street fighting. Bretzenheim lay in the middle of the fronts; Sometimes the besieged, sometimes the sieges settled here, requisitioned cattle, or set the church tower on fire. There were also violent battles at Zahlbach; Above the village, Mainz's Jacobins had created a new, advanced earth fortification, the Klubistenschanze (later Fort Stahlberg), which the Prussians and Austrians tried to conquer in vain.

Plan of the Siege of Mainz, 1793. The German troops are schematically depicted.

The famous "French breakfast" is also well-known: On 17 May representatives of both sides met between the fronts and entertained each other. Obviously the intention of the sieges was to demonstrate their good care situation. Moreover, these and other encounters of the enemies testify to their mutual personal respect, which has been preserved despite the severity of the struggle and ideological contrasts. The latter appeared in the word-warfare, which the simple soldiers of both sides delivered during the fighting pauses.


The bombing of Mainz as a media event
After the Germans received the necessary reinforcements and guns and the responsible military had agreed on the procedure, the bombardment of Mainz began on the 18th of June from the Hechtsheimer heights. According to Vauban's rules, which had developed the modern fortress war, the siege set up a system of ditches to bring their last 207 guns closer to the city. The siege and bombing of Mainz was a European media event, which has found its precipitation in numerous plans and views. A large number of people were traveling to observe the "war theater".



The fire of the Mainz Cathedral 1793. Oil painting by Georg Schneider.

While they watched from a very safe distance, such as the east towers of the cathedral, the Cathedral of the Lady of the Faith, the Jesuit Church, the Domdechanei, the Favorite, several palaces and numerous houses, the main fortress was scarcely damaged Body and life to fear possessions. As a matter of fact, there were several victims in their ranks, but the number of citizens who had been overthrown by bombardment was not several thousand, as can be read from time to time in the literature. It was much smaller and could hardly have exceeded twenty. The reasons for this were, above all, the opening up of the casemates for the civilian population, who could look for protection there, laying out the roads with dung, which prevented the exploding of many "bombs" The time of the bombardment was usually foreseen. It was only after the end of the siege that a major increase in the mortality among the main groups occurred as a result of an epidemic.

The inner enemy
If the city lost a large number of inhabitants during the siege, this is due to the mass expulsions which began with the onset of the invasion on March 30th. Probably about two thousand oath-winners, including clergy, civil servants, and not least almost all of the Jews, had to leave the city. The Rhine-German National Convention had issued corresponding decrees in order to be able to remove the revolutionary opponents from the city. In its implementation, an incident occurred on 9 April. On that day, the President of the General Administration, Hoffmann, had ordered the "exportation" of all still unsupervised citizens and their families, as well as the relatives of all the Mainzers so far reported. 
When two or three thousand persons attended the bridge in the Rhine, the French Post directed the Gauttor. There, the municipal Nickhl told you that here too there was no passage and that there was no "exportation" at all. Thereupon there was a turmoil: Nickhl was injured and some Mainzs arrested. This desperate outburst of a larger mass of people was less trivialized by the Mainz newspaper as a weather-dependent mood.


French nationalist around 1793

The lack of understanding and severity of the radical Jacobins in their dealings with their opponents in this assessment and in the mass expropriations shows, in nuce, parallels to the Jacobin dictatorship which is currently being launched in France. Here and there, the actions of many revolutionaries were more and more distant from their original notions of democracy. This phenomenon was, in a sense, a manifestation of a siege mentality: the encirclement by the external enemy produced all the more severe measures against actual or supposed internal enemies. About 1500 of them eventually wanted to leave the city voluntarily to escape the persecution by the Jacobins and the dangers of bombardment. The Germans, however, did not accept them,

The emigrants were thus in an extremely precarious situation, because the French were initially no longer willing to leave them behind. It was only after one day that they declared themselves willing to do so, as long as the "exported" had to camp in the open air in a life-threatening situation.


Capitulation and revenge of the victors
With this attempt to emigrate, the "exports" ended one month before the surrender on July 23rd. On that day, the French General D'Oyre surrendered the fortress before the Germans, on whose side about 3,000 soldiers had fallen, had been able to shoot a breach and attack the storm. In this way, D'Oyre was able to negotiate a free withdrawal for his army, of which about 2,000 men had fallen, so that their fighting power would not be lost to the French Republic even though they could not be used against the Germans for a year. The French, too, did not feel themselves to be conquered, but, with a very self-confidence, singing the "Marseillaise" (Goethe: "the revolutionary Tedeum"), and proudly declared: "We will come again!". Even today in France, the "victorious Mayence" of 1793 is regarded as a glorious episode of French military history. One of the reasons for this is the fact that the siege of the fortress of Mainz had bound large groups of troops. D'Oyre, however, had not succeeded in obtaining binding security clauses for the Jacobins. Most were therefore victims of a Lynchjustiz. In it the hatred, which had accumulated among its fellow citizens due to the mass expropriations and the consequent expropriations. To obtain binding security clauses for the Jacobins. Most were therefore victims of a Lynchjustiz. In it the hatred, which had accumulated among its fellow citizens due to the mass expropriations and the consequent expropriations. To obtain binding security clauses for the Jacobins. Most were therefore victims of a Lynchjustiz. In it the hatred, which had accumulated among its fellow citizens due to the mass expropriations and the consequent expropriations.


Extract of the French soldiers from Mainz-through Prussian soldiers. Clubbers are "arrested" in the foreground.

The progromic riots, which several injured parties demanded, were only interrupted by the intervention of the Prussian commander. The Jacobins were imprisoned in various prisons and, if they were not regarded as hostages for Mainz, which had been deported to France, they had to face criminal prosecution.

Gradually the authorities of the Ancien regime resumed their work, but the court and nobility did not establish themselves permanently in the city. The buildings destroyed during the siege thus announced the end of the electoral Mainz.



Stauder, Heiner: The siege of the fortress of Mainz 1793. In: festung-mainz.de [27.03.2005], URL: <http://www.festung-mainz.net/bibliothek/aufsatz/festungsgeschichte/belagerung.html>


Wednesday, July 19, 2017

HUSAREN-REGIMENT LANDGRAF FRIEDRICH II. VON HESSEN-HOMBURG (2. KURHESSISCHES) NR. 14




Founding Date: 28. November 1813

Head of the Regiments
  • 1803-1806 Kurfürst Wilhelm I.
  • 1806 Prinz zu Solms-Braunfels
  • 1806-1821 Kurfürst Wilhelm I.
  • 1831-1840 Herzog Bernhard von Sachsen-Meiningen
  • 1873-1879 GFM Alexander Graf Bariatinski
  • 1882-1890 Prinz Amadeus von Italien, Herzog von Aosta
  • 1890-1912 König Friedrich VIII. von Dänemark
  • 1912 König Christian X. von Dänemark
Regimental Commanders
  • 1706-1710 de Bamfy
  • 1744-1753 dAulnay
  • 1753-1759 v. Schlotheim
  • 1759-1762 v. Görtz
  • 1762-1763 v. Graeffendorff
  • 1773-1776 v. Dalwigk
  • 1776-1799 Schreiber
  • 1799-1806 Prinz zu Solms-Braunfels
  • 1806-1809 v. Schlotheim
  • 1812-1821 Scheffer
  • 1821-1832 v. Mansbach
  • 1832-1841 v. Cornberg
  • 1841-1842 Heusinger v. Waldegg
  • 1842-1843 v. Helmschwerdt
  • 1843-1845 Mauritius
  • 1845-1846 v. Ochs
  • 1846-1849 Mauritius
  • 1850 v. Ochs
  • 1850-1854 v. Bardeleben
  • 1854-1859 v. Schenck zu Schweinsberg
  • 1859-1866 v. Heathcote
  • 1866 Heusinger v. Waldegg
  • 1866-1871 v. Bermuth
  • 1871-1880 v. Meyerbrinck
  • 1880-1881 v. Monts
  • 1881-1887 v. Leipziger
  • 1887-1892 v. Lieres und Wilkau
  • 1892-1895 v. Werthern
  • 1895-1899 v. Krosigk
  • 1899-1901 v. Blumenthal
  • 1901-1903 v. Hagke
  • 1903-1906 Hahn
  • 1907-1912 v. Beroldingen
  • 1913 v. Raumer
Uniformes
Overview of the uniforming from the beginnings to the field gray uniforms M1909.


Attila dark blue with white cord trim, Kolpak ponceau red, Patten on the Litewka dark blue, Patten on the coat red, Paletotkragen dark blue raised red, Sabeltasche of the officers red with silver wire, Saddle bag of the teams black with silver monogram
Trumpeters were mounted with foxes.

Naming
The regiment received its name in memory of Landgrave Friedrich II of Hesse-Homburg (born 30.03.1633, died 24.01.1708 in Homburg). Frederick II was born as the 7th child of Landgrave Friedrich I. As his brethren stood before him in his succession, he became a Swedish officer. In 1659 he was severely wounded in the storm in Copenhagen, his right lower leg had to be amputated. A prosthesis with silver hinges bore the nickname "Landgraf with the silver leg". In 1675 as rider-general in the service of the Great Elector, he attacked the Swedes without order at Linum and Hookberg (Battle of Fehrbellin) and inflicted heavy losses on them. The resulting victory was the starting point for the Brandenburg-Prussian rise in the 18th and 19th centuries. In 1681 Friedrich took over the government business in Homburg.


REGIMENT HISTORY

As early as 1706 a Hussars-Company was established in Hesse-Kassel, which fought against the French until 1710 in the Spanish succession. In the Netherlands, she took part in several battles on the Dutch-French border, as well as in the victorious battle of Oudenarde. After the peace, the company was dissolved except for a small tribe.

In the Austrian War of Succession Kassel again set up an auxiliary corps, which fought on the part of Charles VII. In 1744, the Hussars' Company was formed for the most part from Hungarian mercenaries. In 1745 Charles VII died. His son concluded peace with Austria. However, the war continued between France and Austria. Austria allied itself with England against France and Spain. From then on, the Hussars' Company, now supplemented by countrymen, fought in English pay. Again in the Netherlands the hussars fought bravely against the French. In 1746 the company was shipped to Scotland, where she was involved in the defeat of the Scottish insurrection. After the return to the Netherlands, the fighting lasted until the Peace Treaty in 1748. After returning home, the company was not dissolved this time. Rather, the hussars used to maintain peace and order in their own country.

In 1756 the "Seven Years War" began between Prussia and Austria. Even in this war the turmoil of Germany was shown. Besides Hanover, Braunschweig, Bückeburg, and Kurhessen, the German princes were in the solace of France, which sought to destroy the strong Hohenzollern state. The Hessians, led by the Prince of Isenburg, fought in Middle Germany under Duke Ferdinand of Brunswick, who commanded the allies of Prussia against the French.

The Hessian Hussars distinguished themselves in this war, especially in the battle of Sandershausen. On July 23, 1758, superior French troops crossed the Fulda. The Hessian hussars threw the French cavalry back into the water and held the passage for several hours with the carabiner. Finally, they had to yield to the surrender of twelve squadrons, and retreat to the left wing of Hesse. They attacked the advancing enemy several times at Bettenhausen and Sandershausen. In the further course the Hussars corps was strengthened to 4 squadrons. After the peace in 1763, the regiment returned to Kassel and was placed on a foot of peace.

The Rhine campaign
In 1789 the French Revolution began. The royal family was taken prisoner and later executed. In Paris, the republic was called. To save the royal family, 1792 Prussia and Austria entered France. Of the other German princes, only the Landgraf of Hesse-Kassel was ready to take part, and set up a considerable auxiliary corps. During the storming of Frankfurt am Main, the Hessian Hussars regiment was so skilfully led by his commander, Colonel Schreiber, that the King of Prussia awarded him the order Pour le Merite. In 1793, the Hussars fought successfully at Weissenburg and Wörth. On 13 October 1793, the main infantry battle took place around the Lauter crossings before the Weissenburg lines. The Hussars regiment crossed the Lauter at an explored ford and appeared unhappily as the first regiment on the entrenchments. Surprised by the enemy, the French took flight and left their guns behind. However, behind the lines the French had concentrated strong reserves at Scheital. Their counter-attack, however, was thwarted by a brave attack by the Hussars' regiment. The French lost 300 men, 100 men were captured, 1 flag and 5 horses captured. Unfavorable weather, diseases, and lack of food finally forced the retreat to the Rhine. In 1795 an unfavorable peace was concluded. After his return the regiment was reduced to peace strength and Grebenstein was taken as a location. The hussars lived in bourgeois quarters for rent. In 1803, the Landgrafschaft Hessen-Kassel was elevated to the Electorate. The regiment received the name "Electoral Hessian Hussars Regiment".

The time of the French occupation
After the defeat of Austria by Napoleon I in the Battle of Austerlitz on December 2, 1805, 1806 followed the defeat of Prussia, which was supported only by Saxony and Weimar. On the 14th of October, 1806, the Prussian Saxon army was destroyed at Jena and Auerstedt, and with about 27,000 men lost more than half its troops. The Electorate of Hesse had not joined any party. After the occupation by Napoleonic troops, all Hessian troops were disarmed and dismissed. The elector had to flee to Bohemia, and the electorate was henceforth the royal kingdom of Westphalia. An escadron of the Kurhessian Hussars was, however, summoned to Bohemia by the Elector in 1809 with a "proclamation to the brave Hesse", and fought on the Austrian side near Dresden and Bayreuth. After the peace at the end of the year the squadron was released again. This ends the story of the tribe groups.

The liberation wars
After Napoleon's defeat in Russia, the "Grande Armee" was greatly weakened. Prussia prepared the uprising against the French occupation. On January 23, 1813, the King went to Breslau to avoid French access. On February 3, 1813, Hardenberg, in the name of the King, issued a call for the formation of voluntary hunter corps. Finally, on March 16, 1813, Prussia declared war. The spring campaign, however, was so unfavorable that the retreat to Silesia was unavoidable. The armistice of Poischwitz ended the fighting and the short period of peace was used for the reorganization of the troops. Finally, on August 12, 1813, Austria, England, and Sweden declared war on France. On 16-18 and 19 October 1813 came the Volkerschlacht near Leipzig. In spite of high losses, the Allies added a crushing defeat to the French army, which forced the "Grande Armee" to retreat to the Rhine. The Rhine colony dissolved and the expelled German princes returned to their countries. The Elector Wilhelm of Hesse also entered Kassel in early September. Immediately he ordered the convocation of all regiments released in 1806. On 23 November 1813, the order was issued: "The Hussars Regiment is also gathered in Grebenstein and the surrounding towns."

The 23rd of November 1813 has since then been considered the foundation day of the regiment. Under the order of Lieutenant-Colonel Scheffer, four squadrons were set up. The 5th squadron was built later. After the mobilization, the Hessian troops were allotted to the Corps Kleist, which belonged to the army of Field Marshal Blucher. The Hessian contingent had to follow his troops individually. They were destined to remove Prussian troops from the enclosed French forts on the Moselle. Because of the general lack of cavalry, the Hussars' regiment was usually divided. After a successful campaign, which ended with the abdication and exile of Napoleon to Elba with the first "Paris Peace", the regiment returned to the homeland and was assigned to lodgings in Gudensberg and Homburg.

The return of Napoleon from exile in March, 1815, required the mobilization of the Kurhese troops again. In this campaign too, the regiment was generally divided. The 4th squadron was particularly marked when taking Charleville. The commander, Oberstleutnant Scheffer, was awarded the Pour le Merite.

Peace until 1849
In the following long period of peace, the regiment changed its name several times. In 1821 it received the name 1st Hussars Regiment. The "Kurhessische Leibdragoner-Regiment" was formed in 1832 by union with the 2nd Hanseatic Regiment. This was the only Hessian troop of ever brown uniforms. In 1845 it was converted into a Hussars regiment, which received the name of 2nd Hussars-Regiment Duke of Saxony-Meiningen. During the unrest in 1848, the regiment was first deployed in its own country. Without bloodshed it was possible to restore peace and order. In Baden, where three squadrons of the regiment participated in the violent crushing of the insurrection.

In 1849 an escadron was mobilized and used in the campaign against Denmark. Their activities were, however, confined to smaller commissions and exploration. On the second war against Denmark in 1864 Kurhessian troops did not participate.

The German War 1866
Kurhessen fought alongside Bavaria, Baden, Saxony, Wuerttemberg, Hesse-Darmstadt, Hanover and Nassau on the part of Austria. While most of the troops were employed to occupy the fortress of Mainz and did not take part in combat operations there until the end of the war, two squadrons of the 2nd Hessian Hussars' Regiment were assigned to the VIIIth Corps. The two squadrons of the field bore the name "Electoral Hesse Hussars Division" for the duration of the war. Her commander was Major Heusinger von Waldegg.

After the Prussian Main Army had lost a battle with Langensalza against the Hanoverians, but they surrendered a few days later, the Main Army was advancing towards Frankfurt am Main. The commander of the VIIIth Corps gave up Frankfurt and sought union with the Bavarians on the left bank of the Main. The Kurhessian hussars were deployed to cover the flank and explore the important river crossing in Aschaffenburg. The Prussian Division Goeben attacked Aschaffenburg on July 14, 1866, after defeating the Hesse-Darmstädter, which was also part of the VIIIth Corps, near Laufach. East of Aschaffenburg it came to the battle. The 4th field division was thrown and had to retreat over the Main. The Kurhessian hussars had to take over the rearguard. They tried to stop the oppressed Prussians by means of attacks and footfights. After the remains of the defeated 4th Field Division had crossed the Main Bridge, they also retreated. At that time, the Prussian infantry regiments 13 and 55 had already reached the Main crossing. In this difficult situation, Major Heusinger von Waldegg succeeded in creating a genuine "hussar piece". Confiding with the similarity of the uniform with that of the Prussian Hussars Regiment No. 8, which also belonged to the Goeben Division, he led his hussars to the bridge, saluted before the Prussian general grief, and let the hussars go by themselves. As the last Hessian hussar he rode over the bridge. Only then did the Prussians notice their mistake and fired at the droning hussars.

After the cease-fire, the Hussars on 11 September 1866 returned to Kassel. On 17 September, Elector Friedrich-Wilhelm took leave of his troops and removed them from the flag. Kurhessen then belonged to the Prussian province of Nassau.

Two Hussar regiments were formed from the Kurhessian cavalry. The Second Hessian Hussars Regiment was taken over as Hussars Regiment No. 14 into the Prussian Army.
On 14 October, the regiment was sworn to the King of Prussia. In 1867 he was given the standard and received the name of Hessian Hussars-Regiment No. 14, which remained until 1889.

The Franco-German War 1870/71
In the strength of 4 squadrons, the Regiment was transported by rail to Landau in the Palatinate and assigned to the 21st Division as a division cavalry. The 21st and 22nd Divisions formed the XI. AK, which belongs to the III. Army under the Crown Prince Frederick.

On 4 August 1870, the Crown Prince opened the Battle of Weissenburg. The regiment did not cover the left flank without losses, and destroyed enemy telegraph lines in the middle of a violent fire. On the 6th of August, the bloody battle near Wörth. 2 squadrons were deployed in the vanguard, while the rest of the regiment followed the bulk of the 21st Division.

On the heights of Gunstedt the regiment was reunited and held several hours behind the artillery of the XI. AK. It was only after the infantry had forced the victory that the regiment was used to vigorously persecute the enemy. On the road from Reichhofen to Gundershofen, a strong enemy column was reported by an officer patrol. The commander-in-chief, Colonel von Bermuth, ordered the attack. The 4th squadron of the Dragoon Regiment 14 and a Wurttemberg battery joined. The attack succeeded, although Gundershofen was occupied by strong enemy infantry and artillery. They were: 9 officers, 4 physicians, 186 men, 1 gun, 2 field fighters, 4 ammunition vehicles, 16 vehicles and 256 horses. Since then, there was a booty stock, with the help of which veteran veterans of the regiment were supported. Among the captured horses was the body of the General Mac Mahon. The splendid Arabian man was handed over to the lieutenant-general of Gersdorff, with the dedication, "The Fourth Hussars to their Commanding General."

After this successful attack on the rear lines, the French entered into a disorderly flight. Through the Vosges the regiment advanced over the Moselle to the Marne. During the pre-war period, small battles with scattered French detachments were frequent. In the battle for Sedan the regiment was first used as a vanguard cavalry, then for artillery covering. On 2 September 1870, Sedan capitulated, Napoleon went into captivity and became Kassel-Wilhelmshöhe. France was declared a republic and the new French government demanded a struggle to the "extreme". The regiment was deployed during the siege of Paris and entered the French capital as the first regiment on 1 March 1871. Until the beginning of September it remained as a crew in Paris. On September 13, 1871, the 2nd Hessian Hussars-Regiment No. 14 marched back into Kassel under the highest escort of the Crown Prince.

The Peace Period 1871-1914
The 1st, 2nd, 4th and 5th squadron returned to their old barracks in Kassel and Wilhelmshöhe. Only the 3rd squadron was quartered in Grebenstein and Rotenburg / Fulda. The regiment participated several times in the imperial emperors.

The experience of the war necessitated rearmament, since the ignition needle carabiners were no longer contemporary. On March 6, 1873, Kaiser Wilhelm I ordered the introduction of the carbine 71 for the cavalry by AKO. It was, however, 5 years before the first weapons were issued to the troops in 1878. In the meantime, chassey gunposts for the metal cartridge 71 had to close the gap.

Kaiser Wilhelm I had personal reservations about the introduction of the carbine, he was afraid of the fighting morale of his cavalry. For this reason, he ordered the introduction order to be followed by a remarkable reminder: "I am expressing the certain expectation that the cavalry, even after conferring the perfected gun, will be faithful to its glorious traditions, the ever-tried old Prussian cavalry spirit His first and most genuine profession in throwing himself on horseback with the naked weapon upon the enemy, as soon as he is in the open field, and the shotgun will never be used on horseback in a closed squad The use by individual riders, vedettes, patrols and flankurs, as well as for the rare cases in which the combat is inevitable on foot. "

On 27 January 1889 the regiment received the name "Hussars-Regiment Landgraf Friedrich II of Hesse-Homburg (2nd Kurhessische) No. 14", which it retained until its dissolution. In the same year, the lance was introduced and each squadron received a copy of the new carbine 88 for training purposes.

On the Chinese campaign in 1900, 2 sub-officers, 4 corporals and 16 hussars took part. In the course of time, officers and men volunteered for protection in German-South-West Africa and took part in the defeat of the Herero revolt in 1904. Numerous volunteers remained with the Schutzgruppe, where on 9 July 1915 Otavi had to stretch their arms against superior British troops. Since the carbine 88 turned out to be unsuitable, the conversion to the carbine 98ZZ (carbine 98a) began in October 1907, which after extensive military tests became the standard weapon of the cavalry.

The World War 1914-18
On August 3, 1914, the Regiment was transferred to the Luxembourg frontier in the 3rd Cavalry Division, and marched through Luxembourg to France. The regiment received its fires on the 7th of July, 1914. In the following days it was set up for a strategic reconnaissance against Longwy and took part in the Battle of Longwy from 22 to 25 August 1914. This was followed by hard years of war in front of the front, where the regiment was partly also used for infantry in the positional war. In the east, the regiment was deployed in Poland, Lithuania, Kurland, Galicia, and after the Russian capitulation, to secure it in the Ukraine.

On November 14, 1918, the news of the German Revolution arrived. The Ukraine was cleared and the regiment covered the removal of the German troops. In January 1919, a Volunteer Regiment was formed, in which all the officers, most of the under-officers, and 60 men per escadron remained. The remaining teams drove home. The Volunteer Regiment provided protection by rail and on 19 February 1919 changed the last shots of the war with advancing Polish troops at Krypno.

On February 24, 1919, the last parts of the Kassel Regiment reached a warm welcome. Some of the officers and men joined the newly formed Hussars-Regiment Hesse-Homburg. From the old regiment there remained only a few commanders of horses. On May 1, 1919, the Hussars Regiment No. 14 was considered dissolved. Traditions squadron became the 6th squadron of the Regiment 16 in Erfurt.


References

  • KOSSECKI, VON, C. und WRANGEL,VON, R. (1887): Geschichte des Königlich Preußischen 2. Hessischen Husaren-Regiments Nr. 14 und seiner Stammtruppen, Alphons Dürr, Leipzig 1887
  • ULRICH, VON, C. (1933): Das Husaren-Regiment Landgraf Friedrich II. von Hessen-Homburg (2. Kurhessisches) Nr. 14 1706 - 1919, Stalling, Oldenburg
  • EGAN-KRIEGER, VON, E.J (1928), Die deutsche Kavallerie in Krieg und Frieden, Wilhelm Schille u. Co, Karlsruhe i. Br. und Dortmund
  • SCHULZ, H.F.W. (1985):, Die preußischen Kavallerie-Regimenter 1913-14, Podzun Pallas Verlag, Friedberg
  • N.N. (o.J.) Hundert Jahre Hessen-Homburg-Husaren 1813-1913, J. S. Preuß, Hofdruckerei Berlin
  • METZLER, F. (1913) Geschichte des Husaren-Regiments König Humbert von Italien (1. Kurhessisches) Nr. 13
  • KÜHLS, F. (1913): Geschichte des Königlich Preußischen Husaren-Regiments König Humbert von Italien (1. Kurhessisches) Nr. 13, Minjon, Frankfurt
  • HERR, U. und NGUYEN, J. (2006): Die deutsche Kavallerie von 1871 bis 1914, Verlag Militaria, Wien
  • KRICKEL, G. und LANGE, G. (Reprint o. J.) Das deutsche Reichsheer in seiner neuesten Bekleidung und Ausrüstung, Verlag Hochsprung, Berlin
  • KNÖTEL, H. (d.J.), PIETSCH, P. und COLLAS, W. (zweite Aufl. 1982): Uniformkunde- Das deutsche Heer, Friedensuniformen bei Ausbruch des Weltkrieges, Verlag Spemann, Stuttgart



Buttons: Hussar Regiments Kingdom of Westphalia




Hussar buttons made generally known by the model for this kind of troops. Given the similarity of the hussar uniforms in various armies of the world of that period. On such uniform number buttons reached about 80 pieces. Size of the button could be different. In the center of the larger diameter buttons sewn on the edge of going smaller.

All buttons were in the form of a sphere or hemisphere. Basically, hussar uniforms for the French army is characterized by the buttons in the form of a sphere.

Buttons Westphalian hussars almost all were made in the form of a hemisphere and were made of the same size. A characteristic feature is the production of white metal buttons. Only a small part was made from tin alloy. Another feature is the decoration field buttons with various ornaments.

Manufacturing method of soldering buttons produced the top of the hemisphere to the brass base with a steel or brass eyelet. There were options with a hemisphere of white metal and filled tin alloy steel ear.

Buttons 1 st and 2nd regiments did not differ among themselves.

Presented buttons were found on the front line outposts Westphalian hussars under Mozhaiskom. These buttons are found at the crossing of the Berezina and further along the road of retreat to Vilna.

Feldzugs-Erinnerungen des Königlich Westfälischen Musikmeisters Friedrich Klinkhardt aus den Jahren 1812–1815


A list of foreign soldiers in daily pay for England


L'ANGLO-PRUSSIEN detrôné.

L'ANGLO-PRUSSIEN detrôné

"The former prince of Hesse-Cassel, a little riot in Brunswick, will no longer sell to England the blood of his subjects, to make war upon us in both worlds."




Cartographic Map of Westphalia (1810)

Tuesday, July 18, 2017

Forty Minutes by the Delaware

(preview only)

Continental vs Redcoat: American Revolutionary War


Napoleonic Uniformes - Westphalia Plates, Herbert Knötel
















Geschichte des Hessischen Feld-Artillerie-Regiments Nr. 11


Geschichte des 2. Hessischen Infanterie-Regiments Nr. 82


Das Großherzoglich Hessische Militair







Exercier-Reglement für die Grossherzoglich Hessische Cavallerie

Das Füsilier-Regiment von Steinmetz (Westfälisches)

Geschichte des 2. Grossherzoglich Hessischen Infanterie-Regiments (Grossherzog)


Geschichte des Infanterie-Leibregiments Grossherzogin


Geschichte des Infanterie-Regiments Kaiser Wilhelm