Sunday, July 30, 2017

Rhine Campaign 1792


As already said, the march of the allied armies took a long time.  At the end of July only 45,000 men of Prussia1 were in the camp Rübenach near Coblenz.  This army was to proceed Moselle upwards, then, united with one Corps of French emigrants, Longwy and Verdun. Austria Corps were to cover the right and left flanks of the army, the Hessian Corps to secure the communications and, as required, to siege the French fortresses.

The Landgraf himself took the lead; It consisted of nine battalions, eleven escadrons2, who, by bringing in leave and leave Transfers from other regiments to the full budget strength were. The Hussars received ten horses by escadron, and advanced with them twelve officers, thirty underofficials, three fighters, seven men, and 300 common people.

On the 30th of July the Prussian army of Rübenach broke up and reached On the 5th of August Trier. Being strictly based on the magazine catering system the late completion of the field bakery, the poor ways delaying the march of the bread delivery carts so much so to stagnate the advance that on the 20th the Prussian army before Longwy arrived. It united with the Austrian Right Wing Corps of General Clerfayt, while the Hessian Corps on that day the advanced garde, which precedes the main two-day march reached.

This consisted of the hussars' regiment, the Jäger corps, the light Infantry Battalion Lenz and the Grenadier Battalion Philippsthal and was commanded by Colonel Schreiber.  The Corps had a review on the 16th before the Landgrave on the Rhine near St. Goar on a pontoon-bridge and some of the lakes, and lodgings in Hungeroth and Halsenbach based.

1) Forty-seven battalions, forty covals, thirty hussars-squadrons, and Besides the regimental guns still twelve heavy, two riding batteries.

2) Regiment Guard: three battalions, Leib regiment: two battalions, Garde-Grenadier battalion, Grenadier battalions Eschwege and Philippsthal, light infantry-Battalion Lenz (two companies), Jäger Corps (two companies); Three Escadrons Carabiniers, five Escadrons Leib Dragoons, three Escadrons hussars; Sixteen regimental guns, two Amusette

During the translation of the large on the next day to afternoon 2 o'clock, the advanced guard stepped forward on the right Moselufer.

On the twenty-second, the major, which had followed on the 18th, passed Trier and advanced into a camp at Tavern, to cover the hussars in Onsdorf and Köllich, the Jäger and light infantry in the area around Tavern localities cantonnements related. Here the corps remained until the 26th, where the news of the taking of Longwy arrived. This fortress had capitulated on the 23rd, and 60,000 men allied were directly united in front of them, a further 25,000 men in relays three to four days' marches backward. The French forces, on the other hand, were divided into three groups; 23,000 men were at Sedan, 25,000 men at Metz, the so-called "Rhine Army" (about 40,000 men) at Weißenburg and Lauterburg. In Paris the King was overthrown on August 10th, his life was threatened; Frederick William II urged a rapid advance on the Capital, to save the unfortunate monarch.

Duke Ferdinand, on the other hand, maintained a systematic approach, of each of the many French fortresses is indispensable necessary. His view was adopted, the Austrian left wing corps received the order to mingle with the emigrants Thionville, Clerfayt was advanced to secure against Sedan, the Hesse against Montmedy, and the Prussian army turned towards Verdun.

The Landgraf, who received the orders in question on the 26th, next days the advanced-garde, the light troops, and two grenadier battalions, on the 28th of August the main break and reached on September 4th Longuyon (advanced-garde 27th  Nieder-Douven, 28th  Dippach, 29th  Cosne and Romain at Longwy, 30th Colmey and Viviers at Longuyon). Two Escadron's of hussars and the light infantry battalion were sent to Epiez, Charancey and Vezin.

Verdun had also fallen, and now the king, His desire to penetrate Paris, to oppose the duke. The army, though reluctantly, approached the Argonne Forest. By mid-August the French armies had not moved, the upheaval of the 10th August in Paris had also on the lead to the same.  General Kellermann had the command of the Metz, and General Dumouriez commanded the troops of the Sedan concentrated forces, both of which were to join as quickly as possible.  While the former was in a broad arc to St. Menehould, the latter tried to occupy the passages of the Argonne, in order, by this long - range mountain range, to break his flank march and to unite with him.

This was achieved only with regard to the southern; The northern passes, against which Clerfayt's Corps and the Prussian Corps were opposed Army, fell into the hands of the allies, but they did so Dumouriez, unaffected to take his retreat to St. Menehould and to join there on the 18th with Kellermann, while he allied army was only on the 20th, 21st, and 23rd, with its main forces in front of the position which the French took over there.  The Austrian left wing corps and the Hessians, which had been directed to Clermont to cover the magazine in Verdun, were still missing.

The majority of the latter had already marched off to Longuyon on the 5th and had reached its destination via Pillon-Verdun.

The light troops were, after a far-reaching reconnaissance, that Montmedy and Virton had no field troops, on the 8th they were left behind by Rittmeister (Kellerhaus), thirty - six hussars and sixty Jägers in Longuyon followed the main force. In the night to the 9th bivouacked at Pillon, and united on the same day with the main force. The Corps advanced on the 11th through Verdun against Clermont, and entered stock at Fromeröville. The light troops, reinforced by a mixed Prussian cavalry detachment, and a battery of two six-pounders, two Howitzer, four mortars, took an outpost position on the heights between Siory la Perche, Nixeville and Rampont; two grenadier battalions stood 1/4 mile before the camp of the main army as Repli of the outposts.

On the following day, the Landgraf undertook the Regiment Guard, and two howitzers, a reconnaissance of the pass of the Mettes, who came from the Aire valley near Clermont to the Aisnethal near St. Menehould.

The line infantry and the artillery occupied the bridge at Vrain-Court, the light troops Clermont and alarmed the crew of the pass, about 6,000 men from twenty-five different corps and regiments cramped troops. A French Hussars' cetachment had already fallen into the hands of the Allies at Vraincourt; hussars and infantry of the enemy held the village of Jslettes, which, surrounded by two brooks, was protected against a surprise attack. The French camp was on the heights of a woody hill, rising behind the village.  On the basis of this recognition, the corps on the 13th to Vraincourt, took a camp 1/4 hour east of the place, with the light troops in the surrounding villages cantons.

In addition, 600 men of infantry, the Prussian battery, two regiments, and detachments of the Jägers and hussars were secured about an hour’s drive on the height if the pass south-west of Clermont.  On the same day the Austrian left-wing corps under Prince Hohenlohe-Kirchberg, which in vain tried to take Thionville, at Verdun, followed on the 15th to the bridge, and formed up against the right of the Hessians above the Pass of Chalade, which was occupied by some 4,000 Frenchmen.  Inactive, except for the skirmishes of the light troops, there were two corps of the Allies, with only three miles from them fell the decision of the campaign.

But if the Hessians had been present at the same time, it would have been difficult for them to distinguish themselves.

On the 20th of September, the Prussian army of the French, by the previous retreat and the resulting panic shaken army.  The duke could not make up his mind to order the attack on the hill of Valmy, a cannonade filled the day out.  Thereupon began negotiations, during which the weapons rested; the former ended without result on September 30th.

While among the allies the poor food and the bad moral of the troops, Dumouriez used this time, to accustom his troops to the sight of the enemy and to raise their self-consciousness; At the same time he pushed under the pretext that the cease-fire of the armies was extended only to the front of the armies; the left flank of the Hessians, and the allies' allies.

On September 30, the Prussian army retreated over Grandpré-Busanzu-Dun, who, without considerable concern from the enemy, nevertheless in the bad ways, the amount of baggage and the inadequate food.
General Clerfayt was recalled to the Austrian army in the Netherlands.

The Hessian Corps and the Austrian of Prince Hohenlohe-Kirchberg received orders to hold the passes of Clermont and Verdun until the army crossed the Meuse.

As early as the 26th September, divisions had been held against the left flank of the Hesse advanced by French general Neuilly in the upper Airethal.

Although initially no disturbances of the pre-groups took place the left wing had been strengthened, and the majority of them Hessian Hussars from Vraincourt to Autrecourt. On September 30, a detachment of two companies of Austrian Hussars, one hundred horses of Hessian cavalry, and the second battalion of the body-regiment arrived in the Aire valley.  The next day (October 1), attacked by superior French forces and, after a losing struggle, were pushed back. This had entered the rifle and sent the luggage in the evening on the road to Verdun. Without being attacked, it followed during the night and set up camp on the western approaches of Verdun.

At 12 o'clock the vanguard troops entered the rear march, the Hussars held the bridges before Vraincourt and Aureville, until the they then threw them off and formed the rearguard. At the yoke of Maison-Rouge, a new outpost line was established, which deals with the left wing to the Meuse and to the right with the Austrians which were encamped at Fromereville.

The French division, which had made it through the passes of Jslettes, occupied and followed, reinforced to 16,000 men, until Dombasle. On the 3rd and 4th the Hesse remained undisturbed, and they used the time for maintenance. On the 5th at daybreak, Lieutenant von Starckloff, which had advanced on the road to Clermont, encountered the march of an enemy cavalry division. The hussars at once trotted forward, glad to finally be able to compete with the enemy; they immediately followed by a Grenadier-Battalion with 2 dreipfündigen canons.

But the attack did not come to be, as the guns had barely opened their fire, the French cavalry took flight; The right flank of the Hessians had been exposed to which a French battery of four eight-pounders had now set in fire, and the Hesse hastily returned to their main position, the Jäger occupied forest near Maison-Rouge.  The French did not renew the attack, and the battle turned into a thrust of the outpost. Similar skirmishes, which were not easily lost to the hussars, also took place on the following days.  The Corps was now in a forage deficiency, consequently foliage and vine leaves had to serve as horse feed.  On the 6th and 7th the Prussian army crossed the Meuse. The retreat became more and more difficult because of the constant rain, therefore, treaties were established with the French leaders.  Since these Prussians separate from the alliance with Austria hoped for a separate peace, they did not promise the retreat, which Verdun was to be cleansed of them without struggle.

In the meantime, the news arrived that the French Army of the Rhine, which we have said above, that they were at Landau and completed the exclusion of the Middle Rhine, had occupied itself with Speyers and the magazine there, leaving Mainz and Central Germany threatened.  This caused the Landgraf to move back to the national defense; the Corps was subordinated to General von Biesenroth.

On the eleventh, the retreat continued, the northern road over Pillon for the Prussian army, on the south via Etain, the Hohenlohe and Hessian Corps. The latter had already crossed the Meuse by night, encamped on that day south of Verdun on the right bank, broke camp at seven in the evening, and reached the road to Etain on rural roads. After several hours of stopping and boiling the march continued until Etain, here again only briefly, then marched on to Sénon where the bulk arrived at three o'clock on the afternoon of the 12th.  At two o'clock in the morning on the 13th the troops broke camp again and reached in the evening the point where the roads of Pillon and Etain, 3/4 miles south of Longuyon.

Now they had a one-day advance in front of Hohenlohe's Corps, won two days before the Prussian army. They were instructed to pass the Longuyon's defenses on the 14th; and only after unspeakable efforts did it succeed to open a street on which the Hessians could march through the city. During the march, a panic broke out among the conscripts, which caused the most terrible confusion.  It was only by energetic measures that it was possible to prevent looting and inciting. The hussars' regimental wagon with the papers of the staff was lost.  In the evening, the corps occupied a camp north of the city, the Jägers and Hussars, were to be united with the Prussian Cavalry Detachment East and the Light infantry battalion Lenz during the whole march the armed guard, now advanced to Colmey and Vilette against Montmedy.

After a day of rest, the Corps on the 16th received the order to cross the Chier and set up south of Longuyon at Mexy, to cover the march of the Hohenlohe Corps, which on the 16th and the Prussian army, Longuyon passed and marched to Longuyon on the right bank of the river. In the afternoon, at 2 o'clock, the Hesse arrived at eleven o'clock at night. The place was occupied by the light troops, and the bulk was behind it.


The outposts discovered during the night that at Villersla-Montagne, enemy troops were at daybreak
Lieutenant Grau with thirty horses for reconnoitering, which largely took Mexy's position. Shortly before the above-mentioned came Grau on a hostile, retreating field guard, at the same time he discovered a strong division of Prussian cavalry, which was in the same direction as he did proceed to fouragiren. In the course of both detachments the with a hostile infantry of Villers-la-Montagne.

Despite the proximity of the opponents there was no clash; Strong outposts were laid, Hesse and the French were standing idle until the 20th.

On this day General von Biesenroth received orders from the landgrave, to return to the fatherland. The march was over Luxembourg-Trier on the left bank of the Moselle. The hussars reached Dippach on the 20th, the 21st Flachsweiler, the 22nd Era; On the 23rd was a Rest day for the corps, only the hussars marched that day to Salmenrohr. Here came the news that Mainz was in the hands of the French. General Cüstine, the commander of the French Rhine army, had succeeded in impressing the weak Kurmainzian fortress commandant and moving him to a capitulation.

Coblenz was now the starting point with its rich magazines and the dietary basis of the whole campaign, in imminent danger.

The Hessian corps received orders to make this fortress as soon as possibleo reach and to occupy. On the 24th the hussars of Salmenrohr broke camp, after which 150 grenadiers from Philippsthal had joined them
Wagon on the same day reached Lützerath, on the 25th.  On the morning of the 26th at four o'clock, Schreiber announced that he had gone with his hussars and on the 26th at 10 o'clock, that he reached Coblenz, and Nothing found from the enemy.

In the afternoon the grenadiers arrived, the next day the rest of their battalion, as well as the other grenadier battalion.  On the 28th the main body of the Hessian Corps arrived.

Cüstine had made no attempt at Coblenz, his predecessors Divisions were at Simmern. The hussars occupied the passages of Waldesch, sent patrols along the Rhine and the Moselle and encamped at the crossroads between the two rivers.

On the 28th the regiment moved to Neuendorf, where, until 3 November it could recover from the hardships of the harsh march.

The news of the capture of Mainz was given by the allied leaders to the following measures. Count Kalkreuth broke with six Battalions, twenty Escadrons to Coblenz, and reached this place between the 1st and 4th of November. The bulk of the Prussian army followed echelon. Prince Hohenlohe-Kirchberg stayed with Luxemburg, Kellermann respectively.

Custine had been content to occupy Frankfurt; the rest of his body, 10,000 men, was at Höchst, a further gain of 12,000 men, was on the march; The advances garde, Colonel Houchard with 4000 men was at Ober-Ursel; Bergen, Windecken on the right, Bingen, Kreuznach and Castellaun on the left bank of the Rhine occupied the front groups.

Dieselben sent Streif Corps, who were longing to land the country. The Landgraf of Hesse-Darmstadt had with his army, about 3000 men, withdrawn to Giessen. The Landgraf of Hesse-Cassel collected the troops left behind in the country near Marburg, his subjects armed themselves and formed twenty-one battalions of land militia and one Jäge Corps on foot and on horseback. The Hessian Hülss Corps was also established
To Marburg. On the morning of November 3rd, as the largest part of the corps Kalkreuth, the hussars, the Jäger, the First company of the light infantry battalion, the Grenadier battalions Philippsthal and Eschwege on a flying bridge across the Rhine and advanced to the region of Montabaur (Hussars: Heiligenroth). The next day, the bulk followed, and the advance guard made the march to Limburg an der Lahn (Hussars: Offenheim).

Here Captain Engelhard met with a message from the Landgrave, according to which the direct route to Wetzlar on the left of the Lahn is endangered by the French.  Nevertheless, General von Biesenroth could not make up his mind, to take the detour via Herborn, but ordered the others for the 5th Vorwarts on Weilburg, hoping from there on ways on the right bank of the Lahn to Wetzlar. The grenadier battalion Eschwege and the reunited companies of the light infantry battalion remained occupation of the Lahnbrücken to Limburg and Diez back, with the order, to join the armed guard.

In spite of the communications of Engelhard, the possibility appears, even to be attacked by Colonel Schreiber because the Hussars regiment sent the regimental quartermaster with the fourier guards over Weilburg and the Lahn, to Hirschhausen and Philippstein on the road to Braunfels-Wetzlar to make quarters; And several officers sent their hand-horses with them. The quartermaster struck on the heights of the left bank of the Lahn. A hostile patrol of six horses, coming from the southwest. He hunted back, until he discovered that behind the heights crowning forest (Where the new road to Braunfels branches from Frankfurt) Stronger enemy detachments were marched up.

Now it was time for his life to ride; Almost cut off, he escaped, but his servant, with a hand-horse, and two horses of Lieutenant Colonel Prince Solms-Baunfels fell to the enemy hands.

In addition, the regiment had crossed the Lahn near Weilburg and wanted to climb the height of the left bank in the form of the march, as the Fouriers at which Tete arrived, followed by the hostile skirmishers, to whom here the horses of the Rittmeister Kellerhaus fell into the hands. Cornet Bolte received orders to return the French with a troop of volunteers; he carried out this command with great energy, the horses of Kellerhaus were taken away from the enemy.

The regiment marched up and followed, but soon received fire from two eight - pound guns, which stood in his left flank, and found himself compelled to seek shelter behind a hill.

Now strong French infantry developed and pushed energetically in front; The Jäger who had followed the Hussars through Weilburg did so not to assert themselves in the forest parcels and farms of the left bank,
so that Schreiber, the grenadier battalion, still further back command sent, with his two guns, the heights of the right bank to the recording. As soon as this happened, he drew with the Jägers and Hussars through the city, only the adjutant Keitel with a subofficer, twelve hussars, and a commando of fifty Jäger (Captain von Ochs, Lieutenant von Münchhausen) remained behind in Weilburg.

The enemy, a 1800 man strong party under Colonel Houchard, who wanted to cheat Weilburg, did not follow, but entered the retreat.  Schreiber immediately rode in person to ascertain the whereabouts of the and he saw that the same as Esch on the road Limburg-Frankfurt.

Weilburg was occupied by the Grenadier battalion. Jägers and hussars had to camp on the right bank. A Hussars-Feldwache and a Jäger-Detachment were advanced beyond Weilburg.
Loss: Quartermaster Krause, Husar Prostmeyer dead, three horses, three hussars wounded by a cannonball.

Houchard's unexpected appearance became a betrayal of the postmaster at Weilburg, and this one, as well as one in place of the present Frenchman on the orders of the adjutant Keitel arrest.

The Hessian corps now set a northern direction and reached on the 7th after strenuous march Herborn (Hussars: Driedorfs), On the 8th day of rest, 10th the region of Marburg, the Hussars direct to Fronhausen.

The news of the clash described also prompted the Duke of Brunswick, to accelerate the movements of the Prussian army.  His campaign plan was as follows: Defensive behavior behind the Lahn, until the necessary number of troops between Weilburg and Coblenz to be gathered together; Then offensive against Frankfurt.

On November 9th, only a few battalions and escadrons were left Count Kalkreuth at the Lahn, when Houchard took the post of Limburg successfully attacked and the Prussians from the city to the right Lahnufer. He did not, however, pursue his advantage any further; Withdrew, as the Prussians intensified daily and hourly, until Esch at the Frankfurter Strasse back. On the 21st, where the bulk of the Prussian army the Lahn arrived, Count Kalkreuth with five battalions, ten Escadrons Dragoons, five Escadrons Hussars, two heavy, 1/2 horse riding Batteries to Herborn, to connect with the two Hessian Corps:  Of these stood the Darmstädtisch, 8,000 men strong (seven Battalions, three Escadrons Chevaurlegers) in Giessen, the Hessen-Cassel'sche (Twelve battalions, nine Escadrons), a Prussian dragoon commander of
120 horses and a company of Jägers were cantonning at Marburg. The advanced guard, which first cantons in the line Fronhausen – Erfurtshausen (Hussars: Schreiber's Escadron Fronhausen, Lehsten's Escadron Bellnhausen, Vacante Escadron Sichertshausen) advanced on the 14th to the position of the Gleiberg, Vetzberg, Wetterberg near Crofdorf, well-known from the Seven Years War.

On the 26th, at length, the allies collapsed against Frankfurt.  In the Prussian army, the advanced-garde, under Hereditary Prince of Hohenlohe, crossed the Lahn near Limburg; the bulk of the army advanced to this place. Count Kalkreuth merged with the Hessian-Casselian corps before Giessen, and both marched to the area of Münzenberg (Husaren: Oppershofen-Wohnbach).

On the 27th the Prussian advanced guard advanced over Camberg and threw it the enemy pre-groups from Esch. On the same day the combinied arrived Hessian-Prussian Corps the area of Assenheim (Hessian Hussars to Kaichen Advanced): also here touches with the enemy took place by day. The corps then continued the march into two columns, one on the right Niddaufer on Vilbel, the other on the left bank on mountains.  The advanced guard of the latter were the Hussars, the Prussian cavalry-commando, the light infantry battalion Lenz, and the Grenadier battalion Gciech, Eschwege. On the news that Bergen of eighty men of infantry and of some cavalry, the scribe hurried ahead with the mounted men had 100 light infantry follow as soon as possible.

Lieutenant von Starckloff had to deal with the vanguard of Bergen and occupy the Frankfurt Gate.  He followed the rest of the vanguard escadron under Rittmeister of Resius, the two other Escadrons, and the detachment of Kleist turned against the two northern gates. They found fierce resistance, which only diminished when Resius entered the town from the south was. Now the French infantry threw itself into the fortified and barricaded Rathhaus and maintained himself there until the Hessian infantry arrived and stormed with the Hussars. An officer, sixty-eight men were severely wounded the for the Hesse, and fourteen dead Frenchmen, were in the gauntlets.

The hussars had lost the Lieutenant von Starckloff who had received a rifle shot and was to die in the evening from the wound.  A Unterofficer (Zahn), two men, two Horses had been killed as well.

The Prussian riders had lost three men. The advanced guard of the two columns united and continued on the same day (28 November) past the march north of Frankfurt, in the direction of Höchst.  In the hope that the French troops, which had occupied Frankfurt, perhaps were on the retreat. When the advanced guard reached Bockenheim and discovered that the city had not yet been cleared, they demanded the occupiers to surrender. Until the reply was received the troops were under constant rifle fire and secured themselves by a chain of infantry posts.  Around 1 o'clock at night, parliamentair returned with a negative reply.  Now the troops were moved further backwards into Cantonments, the Hussars Regiment and the Light Infantry Battalion to Ginheim, and the Detachment Kleist and Grenadier Battalion Eschwege to Preungesheim.

On the morning of the 29th, at five o'clock, Kalkreuth assembled his corps on the summit at the Berger's station, and, at daybreak, advanced over Vilbel to Homburg. In order to unite with the Prussian army, which arrived on the same day with its peaks there. The great road to Frankfurt was blocked by the festivals occupied by the French king, so the army had left the road and had to march on bad mountain roads to Homburg.

The Hessian-Casselian Corps, after Kalkreuth had retired, took up his position, and remained under rifle fire for the march until noon, took up bivouacs, meet up with and united the advance guard with the Corps, and bivouacked at Seckbach.

The Landgraf of Hesse-Darmstadt near Vilbel set up the connection between the Hesse-Casseler and the Prussians. On the 30th, the Schreiber Corps advanced to Bornheim, Hussars-Feldwachen, against the city of Frankfurt, and enemy detachments, who attempted to proceed, were repulsed by the infantry with the aid of two battalions.

Cüstine stood with the bulk of his troops at Höchst am Main, the advanced guard under Houchard in a fixed position near Ober-Ursel, in Frankfurt General van Hellen with a 2,500 man infantry and 200 man cavalry remained as a crew. An attempt by the Prussians to attack Houchard's position in the flank failed as a result of insufficient reconnaissance of the mountain route used for bypass. It was decided to take an attack on Frankfurt on December 2nd; Hessian-Cassel's corps had the honor of carrying out the task.

From the Prussian army a strong detachment followed the Hessian Sturmcolonnen on the road from Vilbel to counter Cüstine's support attempts. The Hereditary Prince of Hohenlohe was to expel Houchard by an attack in his rear. Detachments remained connected to and around Homburg.

After the disposition for the Hessian Corps, which was intended for the Sturmcolonnen, the attack was to be carried out in four columns. The chief attack was through the 3rd and 4th columns of five battalions, three escadrons to the Hanauer and the Friedberger Gate; 2nd column on the river Main in ships, and the 1st, on the left bank of the Main against Sachsenhausen Column. The Hessian hussars were with the 3rd column; one officer, twenty hussars at the lead, and the rest of the regiment cadre.

The surrounding town consisted of a wide moat and rampart which was strongly defended by the French with a small-arms fire. Thanks to the energetic appearance of a group of Frankfurt craftsmen the French were prevented from producing their artillery.

After a long and exhausting struggle, the Hesse succeeded in seizing the gates and penetrating into the city. As soon as this was done, the escadrons of the Hussars' Regiment hunted through the city, and the Major of Lehsten went directly to the Bockenheim Gate. Here, too, those parts of the garrison, which escaped from the city, were destroyed, and a horse, four men were bombed, one of which, Hussar Schill, died in Frankfurt on the 12th of December.

Soon the pursuing hussars came upon stronger, enemy columns. It was General Neuwinger, the Cüstine sent to the support of Van Helden. But the Prussian columns had also directed their march to Bockenheim from the Friedberger standpoint. Their approach succeeded not only in taking this place, but also in taking possession of the Nidda crossing at Rödelheim. At the same time Erbprinz Hohenlohe Houchard had been driven out of his position.

Cüstine, who felt too weak to deliver a decisive battle, cleared his position at Höchst in the night to the third, and crossed the Rhine. The allied army occupied cantons between Ober-Ursel and Frankfurt. The Hessian hussars arrived at Bockenheim at five o'clock in the evening. Colonel Schreiber received the Prussian Order Pour le Mérite for his much proven energy and bravery.

The Prussian-Hessian army remained at Nidda; Winter quarters were moved to Frankfurt, and they were advanced on both banks of the Main Corps.

On the 14th of December, Prussian troops advanced on the right bank of the river Main to the Wickersbach. On the 17th, the right wing was situated next to the Rhine near Biebrich, and Castel, the bridgehead of Mainz, was closed on the right bank of the Rhine. On the left bank of the Main, in the first days of December, patrols and French troops had been mocking and disturbing the inhabitants, so on the 6th of December, Colonel Schreiber with the Hessian Hussars, Darmstädtischen Chevauxlegers, two companies of Hessian Jägers, two Hessian light infantry battalions, and the Kleist's Cavalry Commando took to secure the ground south of Frankfurt.

He advanced southwards to Langen and Morfelden, to the infantry battalion of Lenz, the Hessian Jäger, the Detachment Kleist, the Chevaurlegers, while he himself remained in Kelsterbach am Main. The Darmstadt battalion of Bussche and Hussars patrolled along the Rhine. On the 17th, a closer encirclement of Mainz was arranged here, and these scribes, with their Hessian Cassel troops, and Kleist's detachment alone, were transferred, while the whole Darmstadt corps was supported by cantons between Darmstadt and Gross-Gerau.

Schreiber dismissed the Jägers and the Detachment Kleist Konigsstätten, the hussars of Rüsselsheim as a quarter.

The terrain between the Main and the Rhine was generally clear and practicable, but only along the right bank of the Rhine were grown strongly grown islands, so-called floodplains, which greatly facilitated the passage of the French, who were cantoned on the left bank of the Rhine between Worms and Bingen.

When an enemy division succeeded in reaching the right bank of the Rhine, both the village of Ginsheim, at the mouth of the Schwarzbach, as well as Gustavsburg, offered an old fortress at the confluence of the Main and the Rhine.

Schreiber believed in his defensive task of not being allowed to admit the assertion of these points, which were exposed to a surprising attack.

He was content to watch the Rhine. To this end, from Rüffelsheim, a post from a sub-officer, six hussars to Bischofsheim, and a mixed field guard from a sub-officer, twelve hussars, twelve infantrymen, had been advanced after a half-way between the two villages. Elfterer was commissioned to patrol upstream from Gustavsburg. The Jäger and Prussian cavaliers similarly secured Ginsheim to Konigsstätten. Until the 26th of January, the French were quiet. On this day, the flying bridge from Oppenheim to Mainz. Toward evening a Ginsheim, on a driven-up battery, opened a fierce fire on the patrols of the Allies, and the fire continued on the following day, and it was found that the French endeavored to mask the preparations for a crossing of the Rhine. Schreiber decided to defend Ginsheim. He ordered the corps of the Jägers and Detachment Kleist to occupy the place, and drew up a captain, four under-officers, fifty soldiers, thirty hussars under Rittmeister Ströbel, and two six-pounders from Rüsselsheim. On the 28th, it became apparent that the French had occupied the meadow, which was situated near the village, with eighty or ninety men. They were neither reinforced nor dared to attack the village. Towards evening, Lieutenant Wolfs, with a detachment of Jägers, crossed the narrow arm of the Rhine, separating the Aue from the bank, and forced the enemy to embark on a hasty embarkation. The French repeated this endeavor with increasing energy, but always unsuccessfully on 12th, 13th and 15th of February, as well as on March 20th. On all these days, the hussars were ordered to Ginsheim, but they never found an opportunity to enter into action.

The equipment and armament of the Hussars' Regiment was renewed and supplemented by the complete number of soldiers and horses, so that it was ready to participate fully and in the best conditions in the campaign of 1793.

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Translated Extract from: Geschichte des königlich preussischen 2. hessischen Husaren-Regiments Nr. 14 und seiner hessischen Stammtruppen 1706-1886, Carl von Kossecki, Robert Freiherr von Wrangel, 1887, pp.143-156.

Saturday, July 29, 2017

The Storming of Frankfurt by the Hesse on December 2, 1792


Forward
By the storming of Frankfurt, which had been carried out by the patriotic nations on December 2, 1792, not only the splendor of the tempting armed men, which had been greatly obscured by the misfortunes of the campaign, was glorified in the opinion of the contemporaries; Also the Damme, which the manly attitude of the Hessian people had opposed to the progress of Cüstine, was the end of the line. This was the reason for every father-lamb's friend to commemorate the fifty-year anniversary of this event, and by the stimulus which had become so numerous in such festivals, especially the author was persuaded to press the following account of this patriotic fate, as a memoir, His source was a manuscript, entirely developed by him, of which he hopes to publish under the title: The Hessians in the campaigns of 1792, 93, and 94 in the Campaign of the Mainz, and the Rhine.

Reminiscent of the deeds of their fathers, who lives from Rodenberg to Rödelheim and from Traisbach to Waunsried and Oberschönau. In short, it is a patriotic chatter, a chimney, which has nothing to do with strict knowledge and art The composer, therefore, imagines the circle of his hearers from friends and family, and from his beloved countrymen, from the country, and from the country, but if a father of the German nation of another tribe, who is a father of the country, wishes to join this circle, Brotherly hand, and if he is a Frankfort, and above all the place of honor, he may also proclaim to his fellow-citizens that they are in the spirit. These pages are dedicated.

This the point of view from which the author wishes that this small, completely unpretentious opportunity be judged. If the entrance were to the splendor of the empire, just as the lower room of the more educated laity maid, its purpose would be fulfilled, for the author would hope, with her success, to give the most sorrowful life to many a worthy veteran, struggling to interrupt by a happy day.

Kassel, 5 December 1842.

The Author.


While the armies of the allies, after having abandoned their initial aim of an invasion of Paris at the end of September, 1792, had gradually retreated behind the Maas, the French General Cüstine, with 18.009 men, had broken out of Alsace, and, after insignificant battles, Of the magazines there, and had advanced there against Mainz. More extreme helplessness, which was increased to the point of unconsciousness, as actual treason, brought about the fact that this German bourgeoisie also fell into the power of the hostile commander without the least resistance.

Though Eüstine, fortunately, had ceased to pursue the territories which had been made to him by this conquest, whereby the total destruction of the army of the allies, still in the region of Luxemburg, might have been averted the surrender (on the 22nd of October), the General Neuwinger with 1,500 men along the left side of Munich, against Frankfurt. Not to be able to resist the Constitution, the magistrate, after vainly raised protesters and appeals to the neo-neutrality of the German Empire, finally felt compelled to meet the enemy, who had already set up several events against the Thore of the suburb of Sachsenhausen to allow the entry.

On the other hand, the moral resistance, which the boldest population of Frankfurt made to all attempts to entice them, like many of their super-Rhine neighbors, into the vortex of revolutionary activity, was in vain and in vain did he leave daily the field of medicine, that of the city, under the play of Games of the Ira, and other melodies of revolutionary songs.

In the same way, the magistrate refused to demand that the heavy artillery of the bourgeoisie should be surrendered, although Eüstine offered himself a price for this prize, from the income paid (2 million francs) It was calculated, however, that the arrogance of the aristocracy was only calculated from the fortunes of the so-called aristocrats, and that all the influence, even of the poor day-laborers and widowers, would yield voluntary contributions to the sum of the sum Intruders, when seven of the most esteemed inhabitants were taken as hostages, and driven to France, because, in spite of all the sacrifices, the required sum could not at the moment be ascertained entirely, and this popular opinion soon found an opportunity to express itself in the most unambiguous manner In order to spread horror and consternation, ordered Colonel Houschard, with a hand of one hundred and fifty men, from all the armies, to take a streak to the Wetterau. As a result, Houschard, on October 24, d. On the following day, he wrote to the authorities, and took orders to seize the supplies of the Hessian saline at Nauheim near Friedburg the following day.  Of the Hessian authorities at Hanan, although the abolition of these stores had long been disordered, the same lack of means of transport had not yet been fully effected.

In spite of the immensely great superiority of the enemy, the brave leader of this little band, Captain Mondorf, never hesitated for a moment in the determination to resist the most stubborn resistance, although every soldier was only beset with a sparse ammunition of twenty cartridges. But the hostile power was too great for him to be able to take part in the morning of the 26th. Who had succeeded in attacking the large-scale salt-mine buildings, he soon withdrew to the heights of the Johannisberges, repulsing every demand for resignation. Having, however, repulsed a two-fold attack, he finally, in order to avoid the danger of being completely surrounded by the enemy's power of 14 times stronger, was in a perfect order, but swarmed by persecutors Butzbach. Unfortunately, Houschard had succeeded in advancing the small Hessian army with a detachment of cavalry and two guns of riding artillery on a detour, and cut off every other road near Ostheim.

Nevertheless, Captain Mondorf did not despair, formed his mansion into a quadrangle, and demanded them to be steadfast.

When, on the other hand, the swarm of pursuers became more and more frequent, and the enemy artillery rode several Rouen, and the last patriot was also fired, there was, of course, no longer to be avoided, and the repeated request to hear a Humboldt accompanied by a trumpeter to stretch out the weapons, and indeed with honors, had done, for the enemy had been fought to the utmost.

Even in the ferocious case of Houschard, this resistance was founded on the highest esteem, for he was not only anxious to ensure the slayings of the insults of the furious and the snorting national volunteers, and of the numerous wounded, and of a five-hour struggle, exhausted all his care, he also returned the swords to those of the Hessian officers, generous, with his own hand, who led them so honorably.

On the other hand Eüstine ordered the small company of the captured Hesse to be brought to Frankfurt on the following day, in a triumphant campaign, but this too was a complete failure, for they were not the victors, but the vanquished. If, indeed, the undecided firmness of the mind, which had been attracted to the quiet, solemn faces of the patriotic warriors, as well as the quiet endurance of the numerous wounded among them, had a profound effect upon the oppressed multitude of their enemies.  The true course of the action among the prisoners of Frankfurt is a sympathetic part in enthusiasm. On all sides, the prisoners were given money and refreshments, and the most distinguished ladies vied with each other, to find the wounded by their own hands the most suitable rush.

When, however, the General Adjuant, in vain, attacked the prisoners in a conspicuous speech, and passed into the ranks of the fighters for liberty, and bade in vain generous rewards, and as his father-in-law warrior, they remain to me from the body, we are Hesse and "want to remain Hesse! "The people who were about to break into a dazzling jubilation, and there was not much that the boldest crowd would have the prisoners under the eyes of the enemy troops and in the midst of the hostile armies

The people of Frankfurt and Hesse may, therefore, remember with the right pride of that time, for while elsewhere the people were immersed in dullness, or dying in helpless fear, letting everything pass freely, or even in the wild feverish tune, to the false idols , While princes, without fear of the dignity of their crowns, stepped in the dust, and, more than one, the commandments of hostile generals to show them lackey feats, they sneered defenselessly into the hands of the enemy of the inhabitants of Frankfurt Their oppressors, and mocked their threats, and in Hesse? As in the days of Philip the Great, and William of the permanent country, poor Danern-Kenrad, on the marks of the Emperor, the fearless heart of love and fidelity for his prince, boldly strengthened the strong arm and Trutz.

As it seems, the mere knowledge of this uprising of the people prepared for him in Hesse, suffocated in the fearful mind of Custine every desire for further undertakings.

At least he contented himself with the Hessian territory with the possession of Bergen and Windecken; A timidity which, even upon his subordinate propaganda, as a few patrols, which had been sent against Hanau, blocked the gates of most of the castles, which had been hoisted up in the region with raised walls, and found the inhabitants resolved resolutely At the same time, the tutelage of Marktkobbel, an old veteran, had made himself felt by the audacity with which he despised the enemies who were desirous of gaining entry from a fortress; They also try to find out what it would cost them to conquer market builders.

Meanwhile, at the beginning of November, it was the campaign of the Champagne. The main army at Koblenz, angling and succesive, along the right bank of the Lahn, to Herborn, in Canton Kirchberg. Even before that, all the home troops, which had remained unavailable, were assembled at Marburg, and by the return of the infantry corps, which was enrolled in Champagne, from 8500 armed men, while 3700 men of Darmstadt troops found themselves assembled in and near Giessen.

The state of extreme exhaustion of the crew and horses of the Prussian army, and the necessity of providing footwear and ammunition in particular, required, however, a certain delay in the opening of the offensive operations against Cüstine, which the King of Prussia desired with impatience. But after these requirements had finally been procured towards the end of November, and the Landgraves of Hesse-Kassel and Hesse-Darmstadt had made the cooperation of their group of troops into the undertaking of liberating Frankfurt from the enemy, and having driven it across the Rhine on the 26th of November.

Meanwhile Cüstine had also gained considerable reinforcements. As, however, a large portion of it was used for the occupation, from Mainz, and for covering the left Rhine river, its main power, assembled at a maximum in Central, was no more than 18-20,000 men. In addition, Honschard, with about 4000 Manu, stood in an entrenched position near Ober-Ursel near Homburg, and 2000 man under General van Helten formed the occupation of Frankfurt. The total power of the allies amounted to about 30 to 34,000 men (including 11 battalions, 5 light companies, and 9 Escadron Hessians, together 6624 men and 767 horses).

If the allies had simply advanced in the manner of the operations of the war of seven years, with the combined forces of Custine at Höchst, this would most likely have retreated to Mainz without a blow, and had cleared Frankfurt of its own accord. But if he had dared to do so with a united force, and in the stout of the Leuthner and the battle of Zorndorfer, H. With the equal energy of the will, to offer the point, it cannot be doubted that he might have suffered a decisive defeat in the bad condition and the complete lack of the killing and warfare of the greater part of his troops. What crops, however, would not have been the result of that excellent Prussia, more than sixty squadrons.  The impression which such a victory would have brought about, and which transformation of things would have brought about, cannot be overlooked. Unfortunately, it was precisely the opposite. By the Hessian Corps through 5 battalions 15 Escadrons. Troops, under the orders of the General Lieutenant v. Kalkreuth, was instructed to advance to Bergen via Glesien, Butzbach, and Friedberg, while the Prussian main army was divided into several columns and side carriages, to advance from Montabauer over Eamberg to Homburg, and the enemy position of Ober-Ursel.

As a result, the Hessian Corps, on 25 November, from Marburg, united on the 26th at Giessen with the department de General Lieutenant von Kalkreuth, in the night of the 27th, at Buybach, and in that quarter, at Friedberg, and on the 28th, after, among others, the best light troops of the advanced gaurd attacked a hostile detachment of eighty men in Bergen on the morning of this day and held captive, a position at the height of the Friedberger Warthe. At midday this day it was passed by the Prussian Colonel von Pelet to General v. Helden surrendered the invitation to leave Frankfurt, did not lead to the hoped-for success, but gave the inhabitant a renewed opportunity to accede to their patriotic sentiments, Colonel Pelet from a jubilant crowd to the flat of the commander.

Even more decidedly, this popularist, von Helden, on the morning of the twentieth, tried to seize power with the power of the bourgeoisie, when an imminent massacre took place, and the group of detainees who had been sent for this purpose was chased away, and the commanding officers were even maltreated.

A deep incident was lacking in such astonishment that he gave the magistrate not only the most succinct assurance that the city should be resisted without resistance by the French troops, but that he did not dare even miserably of his subordinates to the defenders.

In the meantime, the Hessian corps had moved close to Bergen and Seckbach. The Prussians under von Kalkreuth, however, he had thrown over Vilbel to Homburg, in order to get to the top.  Here 26 battalions and 44 escadrons had gathered 40 guns before the front of General Houschard with only 2 battalions of squadrons, and in a very insignificant manner entrenched before the upper Ursel. Yet, the Duke of Brunswick, the Prussian amice, compelled an assault on the same, and ordered that the following day be overthrown by a corps under the Prince of Hohenlohe in the left flank. The probable motives of this mode of action, founded in political combinations and intrigues, cannot be discussed in more detail here, nor is the decisive contradiction of the Duke of Brunswick against the one proposed by the royal wing advisor, Lieutenant-Colonel v. Nüchel proposed a storm of Frankfurt. It suffices to remark that at last, the king of Prussia ordered that this storm attack should be carried out by the Hessian corps, while the rest of the Prussian army was determined. To conquer the enemy's position at Ober-Ursel by circumventing it, and to prevent General Cüstine from coming to the assistance of the occupation of Frankfurt.

The latter consisted of four weak battalions (one line and three battalions of volunteers) of a small cavalry division and two three-lancers, for which there were, however, only 30 bullets and cartridges, as well as the single man of the infantry only with 30 cartridges Respectively. The fortifications of Frankfurt also consisted only of a simple main wall, and the present wet ditch, which, however, was so shallow in several places, that, as the wall was only covered with masonry at a low height, a ladder- Possibility, especially the Mange! All the outside works and the large crowd of gardens, with their pleasures and dwelling-houses which, being close to the outer part of the tomb, would have allowed themselves to approach the quick points of the enclosure. In the negligence of the enemy, which put almost no obstacles to the connection of the inhabitants to the outside, it would not have been difficult to draw the most accurate information about the appropriate places. It seems, however, that the Lieutenant-Colonel v. Nüchel, in designing the plan of attack, was all the less reckoned with by the fact that, on the basis of his assent, he believed that the doors would be opened to them at the moment of their appearance.

For this reason, a battalion of 1 Battalion, 4 Escuadrons (1. Batallion von Kospoth, and the Darmstadt-Chevaulegers Reg.) On the night of Dec. 2, at Rumpenheim, crossed the Main, and was to make an ill-attack against Sachsenhausen, while a division of the 2nd Batallion Kospoth should try to drive down the Main from hidden ships, and below the Main Bridge, the so-called " Butt gates, and then, in the interior of the city, against the All Saints' Gate. One. Column, under the General Major v. Haustein, was to attack the All Saints' or Hanau's Thor, and from the light battalion of Lenz, the grenadier Bataillon v. Cichwege, the body regiment, the 2nd Bat. Garde, the Hessian Hussar regiment and a settlement. Dragoons are assembled and gather at Bornheim. A fourth column was to attack the Friedberger or Neue Thor, and the following, under the orders of Major General v. Wurmb, 1) the Jager Battalion and the Company of Volunteers; The Guard Bat. Prince of Hesse- Philippsthal, the Guard-Grenadier-Regiment, and 1. Bat. Guard, a battery of Prussia. Heavy artillery, the Escadron Garde du Corps, and the Regiment Carabinier, and gathered at the Friedberger Warthe. Collective columns were to be attacked with the bell at 7 o'clock in the morning of the second decade. If the gates were found to be closed, the artillery should be preferred to the same; The carpentry, therefore, to join the planks of the draw-bridges, and then to join the infantry at once, and to arrange the various sections of the various columns on the line and the Rop-market.

On the morning of the 2nd of December, the patriotic troops advanced from their cantonments at Bergen and Seckbach, s. w. And were therefore found before five o'clock in the prescribed order at Vornhcim and Friedberger Wanhe. On the other hand, the Prussian army seemed to have exhausted a short time, and as a crossing of the columns took place through Vilbcl, it did not reach the Friedberger Wart until after seven o'clock. But as a fierce morning fog still surrounded the veil of Frankfurt and a veil of veil, the attacking columns could have approached the same place more surely quite unobserved than it seemed to the enemy to meet with the corresponding security institutions This delay would have had no detrimental consequences if the attack had not suffered a further delay, as a result of the retarded appearance of the King of Prussia; By the latter at eight o'clock on the summit of the Warta, accompanied by the Duke of Brunswick, surrounded by a just as splendid as a splendid retinue, under which several of the neighboring princely and countless subjects, and even some graceful Amazons, have been found should.

Though the view of the sun shining brightly at the horizon, and the illumination which had thereby been imparted to the beautiful winter landscape sunk in the sun, the stadia was the most splendid of all the patriotic warriors in their garb of armor, as they were adorned as if for a feast, full of impatient impatience, the sign of warfare and the surprise of the enemy, and the flashing of the enemy's weapons on the visible ramparts that the enemy expected the attack.

At last, at about midnight, when the solemn chanting of the Cathedral of Frankfort, calling for the solemn worship of God, was begun, orders were given for the advance; But the columns can be kept in march when suddenly the order by the Duke of Brunswick. Lieutenant-Colonel v. Nüchel, who was at the head of the fourth column, hastened to the top of the fourth column, and presented in a respectful manner, but with a firm, decided tone, how he would like to make his honor, as his own, into this success.

This also had the desired result, and the column continued its march. Now, mingling with the minutes after the most precious had been lost, was almost advanced, and the presupposition of finding the doors open seemed to be realized, for when the book of the fourth column was based on a hostile foreign policy to approach the Friedberger gate, it was plainly clear; The largest drawbridge was left over. Although the huntsmen at the head were at once to throw themselves upon them with loud shouts of laughter, the enemy guards succeeded in raising them up as the most advanced ones were only a few steps away The enemies exhibited on the ramparts and in the fortress of Burbur, immediately directed a violent enemy to the rushing.

The Jäger, by doing so, moved as quickly as possible into the garden, which was situated on either side of the Heerstraße, and returned here, covered with garden houses and by walls and hedges, but the more murderous was the effect of that Enemy troops from the Grenadier battalion of the Regiment Guard and Guard Grenadier, who had been formed by the grenadier companies of the Regiments Guard and Guard Grenadier, especially by the hubbub of the Jäger, and following them in blind haste until the outer grave.

Could his brave princely leader consider it inconceivable to retire at once, or may he hope to seize an opportunity, nevertheless, to force the entrance, instead of retiring into a secure position, and determining the extent of the effect of the effect He remained at the edge of the trench, and thereby led the densely following Hanover colony to enter the sphere of the perilous enemy sphere, in as much as the rumor that the door was open had been spat out, Therefore, to believe it was necessary to declare the Grenadier battalion to enter the narrow gateway.

Now, the Heerstraße, here, by hanging buildings, high garden walls, s. w. On both sides, was narrowed and narrowed, very soon there was a heavy thrust of the rear detachments, whereby the troops, more than 2,000 men, were almost defenseless, and the effect of the enemy's bullets simply looked as if they were not much more needed for their enemies to lay their rifles on the brigade of the rampart, or to put them in the shooting-sticks of the tower, and to print them blindly, and yet to be certain of the meeting.

Under these circumstances the fire, which was made by the Grenadier Battalion Philippshal, and a part of the Guard Grenadier regiment. Against which on the enemies ramparts will not be of considerable effectiveness. In the meantime, however, this mutual fire had lasted for almost half an hour, and it was not until the greater part of the ammunition had been shot, Donop and the Captain v. Wolff and von Münchhausen had fallen to his death, Colonel-Prince Charles of Hesse-Philippsthal, as well as the Captain v. Desclaires and the Lt. von Rademacher had been cut down by fatal wounds, and several others by severe wounds, and more than a sixth of the Grenadier Battalion. The body of this battalion, on the right and on the left, began to break through the satisfaction of the Heerstrasse, in order, like the Jäger, to take a position which was more covered by the murderous hostile fire. While the Guard Grenadier Regiment, however, behind the 1. Battalion Guard was withdrawn, in order to be reorganized here, in as much as, inevitably under these circumstances, something was in confusion.

As a result of the advance of these men on the Battalion Guard, which was almost the whole breadth of the road, there was also a certain movement in this group, which was the command of the regiment. Colonel v. Benning caused his dear, thunderous voice to be heard. If you will stand still, the first of the place will give way, I run the sword through my body. Whereupon the crew, motionless, with a rifled rifle, underneath the enemy bullets, which were now spreading out in their ranks and wounds.

Fortunately, however, these hostile fires, probably from deficit of deficiency, very soon ceased, and after some time existed only from individual shots.
Meanwhile, the Prussian. Heavy battery, as well as two mortars, had been driven up about 1500 paces from the ramparts to the left of the Friedberger Strasse, but the gateway could not be shot at this position, and the effect of this cannonade was limited to a few bombs and shells to throw the scattered bullets into the city, which hoped to incite the inhabitants to a more active assent. In addition, after the 1st Battalion of the Guard had finally been withdrawn, two Hessian battalion guns were under the Lieutenant. v. Riepe on the road of the Heerstrasse, on the opposite side of the road, which at once caused a fierce, but almost ineffectual, fire against the drawbridge, and thereby lost the greater part of their crew, by the more agitated enemy councilors Was compelled to supplement them several times.

Almost simultaneously with the attacks on the cemetery, the third column had also appeared before the All Saints' Gate and had found this, however, closed. As, however, the injurious circumstance did not take place here, the Battalion of Lenz, placed behind a well-placed garden wall, with the enemies exhibited on the ramparts, was a very active one b little murderous chimney fire, while two Hessian Battalion guns under the lieutenant Engelhard, but unfortunately also unsuccessfully as the main column remained out of the range of the gun, and thus suffered no loss.

On these two points the battle continued in this way for a considerable time, the following incidents had taken place in the interior of the town. The commander, van Helden, had, on the news of the approach of the enemy column, immediately informed General Custine of the news, and distributed the garrison in the following manner: 200 men held Sachsenhausen, 80 men occupied the tower on the main river, Line troops, 1 bat. Volunteers, the two guns, and the rehabilitation, were all set aside from the line, but the rest were so distributed; Every gate was occupied by about 100 men, every barrack occupied by 30-50 men. He himself had gone to the Friedberger gate, and, postponing the possibility of the resistance, was on the point of approaching the advancing storm-column, in order to establish negotiations, had, however, been prevented by his own men.

On the other hand, many of the volunteer battalion , who were on the ramparts, took the flight at the mere sight of the approaching columns of attack, even though they could only shoot one shot, For example, 1 bureaucrat and 20 men of the Guard. Company of the 3 battalion of the Niederrheins, who was confided in the defense of the Friedberger gate. At the same time a large number of officers, armed men, and knights, gathered in the vicinity of this gate, and were whispering and screaming by General v. Helden demanded the opening of the gate, and also rejected some ordinances sent by him, but he did not dare to undertake quietly against this hustle and bustle.

In the meantime, General v. helden had finally succeeded in giving the reserve, which was issued from the line, to let each of the attacked gates, under cover of a company, print one of the guns. No sooner had that happened, however, set in motion, than another Bolkhans, who had assembled there, had followed them, and fell upon them, after a short hand, and the wheels of the guns In pieces. It was true that another part of the reserve had been set in motion to assist the attacked; Since, however, in these. When the first bombs dropped from the line, the battalions were so terrified that, with the exception of the two corporations, they set out, with the exception of the two corporations, in a wild flight to the Bockheimer Gate, as well as of many national guard volunteers, coming from the ramparts individually, was all the more imitated when several burghers shouted to them that the hopes were already in the city, and would not give a pardon; They would not hesitate to save themselves. And the miserable demeanor of the soldiers, who was intimidated by the threats of the crowds of people around him, not only left Friedberg's door to go to his apartment on the line, but also himself a division of the lineage from which it was possible to make a free course with the force of arms, encouraged the boldest masses of people to become more and more delicate.

As soon as half past ten o'clock, the little drawbridge, which had been intended for pedestrians, had been shot at the Friedberger Gate, while that section of the French line-sweepers was now beginning to penetrate a new hut, a Hanseatic artisan clasped his heart Below the arch of the river, while some of the waggles were climbing the ropes, and broke the celestials of the great drawbridge with heavy forging-hammers, so that they thundered.

The attacks, which had been longing outside the town of Creiguiss, had long been attracted to their attention by the vigor of the small drawbridge. And when, therefore, the great drawbridge fell down, the commandment advanced in the stifling jubilation, with which the 1st Battalion of Guards, with the unprecedented impetuosity, fell from the same moment.

Four companies of the battalions immediately pressed forward without an eccentric, under the sound of a drum-beat and with a wild Victora cry, interrupted by the cry: "Death to the Custine!" The Custine is to die: along the Friedbergerstrasse, to the time before, and made every effort to resist the bayonet. The Garde Grenadier Regiment followed them in a closed column, Lieutenant v. Selchow, who had passed through the narrow gateway too long, had gone too long, followed by a certain crew, and had passed through it, half swimming, and was, with the sword in the wall, the wall of the patriotic warriors Was greeted with loud cheers by the inhabitants of Frankfurt. Many windows were flocked to welcome white towels, and some ladies even found themselves so far, the first. Officer, or soldier, to embrace them most tenderly, while they endeavored, at the same time, to endeavor to snatch vanquished or wounded Frenchmen into the wrath of the victors.

In the meantime, the 5th company of the 1st Battalion Guard, the Lieutenant v. Stodhansen, with thirty men, who were still to be driven above the Thorweg on the ramparts. The enemies, in the number, the guns, stretched a lively hand on the stairs leading to it. The remainder of the wall was cleared partly by the Jager Company, and partly by the Grenadier Batallion. v. Philippsthal.

Almost at the same time as the Fredberger Gate, the All Saints' Gate had been opened by a bunch of craftsmen. The 1st Batallion Leib regiment, and the Hussars, to the line of the line, and here, shortly before 1 o'clock,  were united with the 1st Batallion Guard Regiment and the Regiment Guard Grenadier.

Van Helden, meanwhile, had yielded to the requests and threats of the magistrate, and decided to capitalize. The adjutant captain who was, however, adjourned by him to the Friedberg Court, arrived here,In the meantime, however, he succeeded to succeed him to Major General v. Worm. Captain Muller of the Regiment Garde ordered the adjuant captain to be accompanied by a small detachment, in order to stop the enemy from all sides, and to protect the French, as much as possible, from the first outbursts of the storm.

Although the latter intention could not always be achieved with success, this was mainly due to the fact that, besides the. Which had been proved by the greatest part of the garrison, a few Frenchmen, still the most stubborn resistance, and covered with wounds, despised every pardon. It may be assured, therefore, that the patriotic warriors, with a few exceptions, were not stifled by atrocities by the atrocities of the nobles, who are the more honored men, who are honored with their grandeur and proven humanity. Just as it is proved by a notarial deed that in the streets of the town only seven were killed and 19 were wounded and wounded on the ramparts 34 wounded and 129 wounded.

At the same time, General van Helden, for a moment, was in danger of falling as a victim of the fierce exasperation which filled the hearts of the patriotic warriors against General Cüstine, because of the reproaches which the latter had made against his prince. By this time the rumors that Cüstine was still in the dwelling of commanders, several Hessian soldiers who had sworn him to death had been encouraged to steal from the limbs, surrounded by a like-minded raging folk fan to encircle that building. Indeed, one of them had already attacked van Helden, who had entered the window, and was confused with Cüstine, when one of his men had succeeded in turning the gun to the side, so that the shot did not hurt anyone And, moreover, some of the officers who had been surrendered to the walls of the building, had no further consequences, and the accustomed zeal of the officers very soon caused a great agitation To which the presence of the King of Prussia, who had accompanied the Duke of Brunswick, followed the Hessian columns contributed greatly.

The troops which had entered the town were at once employed to occupy the ramparts, from the Main to the Bockheim and Eschenheim gates. These measures were all the more necessary, as the enemy had already so closely approached Botticelli's Gate with some of the battalions sent from Bockheim to the occupation, that the Jagers, who first arrived here, had only time to spare the drawbridge and what is going on between them and the vanguard! A hostile rifle-fire was opened to the enemy's detachment.

At the same time, the pre-eminence of the Prussian main armies marched between the Friedberger Warthe and Preungesheim (the Prince of Prussia, Prince Charles, the squadron of Eben Husaren, and a heavy battery) exhibited at the Bertram Court, So General Reuwinger withdrew. Who had commanded those enemy detachments, immediately returned to Bockenheim, and returned to the Huller, on the one hand by the Hussars of Eben, and on the other by the Hessian Garde du Corps, Carabiners, Hussars, and Chevallets, together with 16 Escadrons ) was lively, but, as it seems, was followed with no success.

After several lively but little murderous canons, Neuwinger retreated from Bockenheim to Roedelheim, and from there to the main station, Cüstine, to Höchst, which retreated to Mainz and Hochheim on the night of December 3rd.

The various corps, into which the army of the allies were fragmented, were crowded in the districts on the night of December 3, in the districts situated at their sites. The brigade v. Eochenhausen (Prince Hereditary Prince and 2nd Prince Prince Charles) at Bockenheim, the Grenad. Bat. From Philippsthal and the regiments of Garde and Garde Grenadier to Frankfurt, the rest of the Hessian corps in the mountains, Seckbach, s. w. The patriotic warriors, though they had been obliged to bring under the rifle by seven o'clock in the evening, the king of Prussia ordered that three battalions of Prussia should occupy all posts during the night, in order to give the Hessian troops complete peace; By the valorous inhabitants of Frankfurt, with food and drink, almost to the utmost extent. No less were the inhabitants of the Hessian districts, which were at first situated, with all sorts of refreshments, and showed the greatest sadness.

Soldiers gave the donations of the Frankfurters the advantage over theirs. In particular, a baker from Bergen, who, in his patriotic enthusiasm, had baked an immense quantity of apple-cakes, and, together with a bottle of apple-wine, brought the woman and child to Frankfort, with the help of the Harde Grenadier Regiment Wailing as the soldiers, who had already been overpowered, despised his gifts until an officer came to the thought. To propose to him to turn his hospitality to the hussars. Which were exhibited in front of the Bockenheim Gate, may not have enjoyed the same original influence. He went on this with joyful hurry, but asked for an escort so that, as he said, his apple cake, baked only for his pious brethren, would not be given to others. This request was given to him, and indeed he was to be exempted from the hussars with rejoicing, and his joy was in no way limited to him, by the use of some officers, accompanied by some commanding officers, to one of them to ride.


Every friend of the Vatican must have a great satisfaction that the bravery of the patriotic patriarchs, in spite of manifold mistakes in arrangement and execution, nevertheless proved themselves by the way to the most glorious, with which officers and soldiers with heroic constancy death and wretchedness Had defied. Underneath, build the Major v. Donop of the Guardian Grenadier Regiment had given the most vigorous example, although, with two severe wounds, bleeding and unable to sustain himself without support, he did not move from the front of his company, until at last a third bullet stretched him to the ground. Likewise, Colonel-Prince Charles of Hessen-Philippsthal, who had been crushed by the Schrnkclnknochs, had almost been able to be moved by force only to be carried out of the battle; Even soldiers, who had been seriously wounded, returned to their ranks, after having been dressed, as, in particular, with the Guardian Grenadier Regiment, several such bravery became impotent, with the loss of blood, and even dying together for a considerable time on the line. At the same time, however, a great deal of noble blood had been shed, for seven officers and 75 soldiers covered deathly or deathly wounds, and officers and 93 men were usually seriously injured, and the total loss amounted to 18 officers and 168 men.



Rich were the donations of dignities and honors, with which, at least in the leaders, the proven bravery of the humble army was rewarded not less by the King of Prussia, and by the Land Prince. In addition to numerous promotions, including the General Majors von Wurmb to General Lieutenant, and the Colonel von Bennning as Major General, received the Hessian Orde: the Colonel v. Steel from the Garde du Corp. The General v. Dallwigk of the Karabiniers, the Major v. Offenbach of the Reg. Garde, the Colonel v. Fuchs and Kapirain v. Hachenberg of the Garde Grenadier Regiment, the Lieutenants of Riepe and Engelhard of the artillery, the Prussian Kapilain v. Kleist and the Lieutenants v. Trent and v. Rade. The colonel prince of Hesse, Philippsthal, and Lieutenant General von Hess, Biesenrodt and the Order for the Colonel v. Benning of the Regiment Guard, Colonel-Colonel of the Hussars, Colonel v. Lenz from the light infantry, Major v. Mop, Commander of the Jäger, Major and Wingadjutant v. Heister,  Captain v. Marquardt and Wiederholt of the General Staabe. Ruchel, on the other hand, who had been exhausted from the horse by his exertions, and which had been exhausted from the line by his previous exertions, was pardoned. He was promoted to colonel and governor, and received the great red eagle's order.

The king of Prussia, gave a gift of the money to every man of the Grenadier battalion of Philipsthal, and to the regiment of Garde and Garde Grenadier, and to the corpse of the whole corps, one for every unofficial, and for both the monarchs the most ample donations to the support of the wounded and the widows and orphans of those who remained.

In particular, Landgraf, who had been personally at Frankfurt on the 6th of December, had a supreme order as early as the 8th of December, in which, in addition to the acknowledgment and gratitude for the services rendered by the troops, all those who had been injured and the widows and orphans of those who remained , double pensions were insured.

In a Heerschau, on the 9th of December, on the Grenadier battalion of Philippsthal, Landgraf felt the deepest shock as he crossed the limbs, and missed many of his well-known warriors, and almost always returned to his inquiries after them. Seriously wounded! In his eyes he investigated the nature of their injuries. And in what manner you and their survivors! Sad destiny would be most easily mitigated. At the same time, the orders which he had made with regard to the care of the wounded, with a good deal of goodwill, could not be attained, because the noble inhabitants of Frankfurt turned to such an active participation and such a care, As every wish had been. The magistrate had not only been admitted to the Bürget Hospital, but was also dependent on a considerable amount of lumber for their food, while for the same purpose, under the guidance of the most distinguished ladies, a French society had been in effect Vied to prepare the sufferers for every comfort, and to personally offer them the best possible refreshment and refreshment. No less by means of voluntary contributions and by the church, than by the proceeds of plays, concretions, and bales, a considerable mute for the support of the frail, as well as for the widows and orphans of those who had remained, was repeated, and this collection was repeated even on the first anniversary of the assault.

But also the gifts of the love of one's own people were not lacking, the more touching, as they were often those of poverty. For example, For example, sent by their own messengers of the hospital, poultry, large violets of wine, and other rural licking-places, so that the sick of the inhabitants of the village should be remembered, and the inhabitants of the locality of Flea in the narrow-valley, Holzhauer, charcoal-burner, and miners, gathered together to form a collection and donated to the community of the community, who had participated in storming. Which even the Le Moniteur states: La Noblesse à Floh contributed a few thousand francs to reward the sufferers of Franfurt.

Even death was not forgotten. Frederick William II of Prussia reads a memorial to her memory, generous and worthy of a king, where the majority bleed to erect a monument in front of the Friedberger Gate of Frankfurt.

May the Hesse be satisfied with a just pride, so that the virtues of his fathers acquired such a recognition as no other army can boast of the same or similar, and that honor is an all the more unsuspecting testimony, as a foreign hand, consecrated to the glory of his people; So a sorrowful, painful gesture, the Brun, because at the same time it must be designated as the only one by which the patriotic war-war of posterity is proclaimed. For if the capital of the country is to be counted among the most beautiful in the valley of the valley, it is the least of all that can be animated by the memory of a glorious past for the future. Thus it may not be found wholly inappropriate, if in a few words a description of a monument is made, which at the same time has become such a royal and generous sense of that monarch, and which, in spite of his skill in the matter Germany, was so incurably profoundly affected, many weaknesses, but always a heartfelt memory of the hearts of every father-in-law of Hesse, who, for a people's honor, will always remain alive in the people.

In front of native basalts, a nineteen-foot-high, and even wider, cube is erected, on the edge of which are travertines of black marble, five and a half feet, and the first year and day of the beer Perpetuated event, while the second bears the inscription:


Friedrich Wilhelm ll. King of Prussia, the noble Hessians who had been victorious in the struggle for the Fatherland;

The surface is adorned by an ancient tower, which is painted by a lion's skin with a hanging colossal lion's head, while a colossal helmet, a shield, and a herculeum, leaning against it in a sensual grouping, adorn the emblems, as well as the inscription tablets of the enemy's conquered conquerors.

Thus, we believe that we have fulfilled the task posed, whether to the satisfaction of our readers, we must be set aside; Nevertheless, we can not lower the pen, without first putting one of our longing desires into words.

It would not be possible to pass a half-century before the Hessian men, with an irresistible force, were storming against the gates of Frankfort, surrounded by clouds of steam, but not of destructive fire, but of a raging locomotive; In the meantime, those designs would mature and be executed, whereby all Germany will be embroiled with iron gratitude, but with bonds which will strengthen and revive love, concord, and brotherhood.

Would not any Hesse, therefore, refrain from leading his son, who was maturing to the youth, to the place of patriotic fame, out of the grave of patriotic heroes, in order to become more solemn than the ancestors, a hundred years may still be said, the Hessian people is still what was always, and what was written in its flags and shields:

Brave and faithful!


Hessen monument at the Friedberger Tor. around 1850

Hessendenkmal, Frankfurt am Main

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Translated Extract from: 
Die Erstürmung von Frankfurt durch die Hessen am 2. Dezember 1792
Ditfurth, Maximilian Joseph Carl von, 1842