Saturday, July 29, 2017

The Storming of Frankfurt by the Hesse on December 2, 1792


Forward
By the storming of Frankfurt, which had been carried out by the patriotic nations on December 2, 1792, not only the splendor of the tempting armed men, which had been greatly obscured by the misfortunes of the campaign, was glorified in the opinion of the contemporaries; Also the Damme, which the manly attitude of the Hessian people had opposed to the progress of Cüstine, was the end of the line. This was the reason for every father-lamb's friend to commemorate the fifty-year anniversary of this event, and by the stimulus which had become so numerous in such festivals, especially the author was persuaded to press the following account of this patriotic fate, as a memoir, His source was a manuscript, entirely developed by him, of which he hopes to publish under the title: The Hessians in the campaigns of 1792, 93, and 94 in the Campaign of the Mainz, and the Rhine.

Reminiscent of the deeds of their fathers, who lives from Rodenberg to Rödelheim and from Traisbach to Waunsried and Oberschönau. In short, it is a patriotic chatter, a chimney, which has nothing to do with strict knowledge and art The composer, therefore, imagines the circle of his hearers from friends and family, and from his beloved countrymen, from the country, and from the country, but if a father of the German nation of another tribe, who is a father of the country, wishes to join this circle, Brotherly hand, and if he is a Frankfort, and above all the place of honor, he may also proclaim to his fellow-citizens that they are in the spirit. These pages are dedicated.

This the point of view from which the author wishes that this small, completely unpretentious opportunity be judged. If the entrance were to the splendor of the empire, just as the lower room of the more educated laity maid, its purpose would be fulfilled, for the author would hope, with her success, to give the most sorrowful life to many a worthy veteran, struggling to interrupt by a happy day.

Kassel, 5 December 1842.

The Author.


While the armies of the allies, after having abandoned their initial aim of an invasion of Paris at the end of September, 1792, had gradually retreated behind the Maas, the French General Cüstine, with 18.009 men, had broken out of Alsace, and, after insignificant battles, Of the magazines there, and had advanced there against Mainz. More extreme helplessness, which was increased to the point of unconsciousness, as actual treason, brought about the fact that this German bourgeoisie also fell into the power of the hostile commander without the least resistance.

Though Eüstine, fortunately, had ceased to pursue the territories which had been made to him by this conquest, whereby the total destruction of the army of the allies, still in the region of Luxemburg, might have been averted the surrender (on the 22nd of October), the General Neuwinger with 1,500 men along the left side of Munich, against Frankfurt. Not to be able to resist the Constitution, the magistrate, after vainly raised protesters and appeals to the neo-neutrality of the German Empire, finally felt compelled to meet the enemy, who had already set up several events against the Thore of the suburb of Sachsenhausen to allow the entry.

On the other hand, the moral resistance, which the boldest population of Frankfurt made to all attempts to entice them, like many of their super-Rhine neighbors, into the vortex of revolutionary activity, was in vain and in vain did he leave daily the field of medicine, that of the city, under the play of Games of the Ira, and other melodies of revolutionary songs.

In the same way, the magistrate refused to demand that the heavy artillery of the bourgeoisie should be surrendered, although Eüstine offered himself a price for this prize, from the income paid (2 million francs) It was calculated, however, that the arrogance of the aristocracy was only calculated from the fortunes of the so-called aristocrats, and that all the influence, even of the poor day-laborers and widowers, would yield voluntary contributions to the sum of the sum Intruders, when seven of the most esteemed inhabitants were taken as hostages, and driven to France, because, in spite of all the sacrifices, the required sum could not at the moment be ascertained entirely, and this popular opinion soon found an opportunity to express itself in the most unambiguous manner In order to spread horror and consternation, ordered Colonel Houschard, with a hand of one hundred and fifty men, from all the armies, to take a streak to the Wetterau. As a result, Houschard, on October 24, d. On the following day, he wrote to the authorities, and took orders to seize the supplies of the Hessian saline at Nauheim near Friedburg the following day.  Of the Hessian authorities at Hanan, although the abolition of these stores had long been disordered, the same lack of means of transport had not yet been fully effected.

In spite of the immensely great superiority of the enemy, the brave leader of this little band, Captain Mondorf, never hesitated for a moment in the determination to resist the most stubborn resistance, although every soldier was only beset with a sparse ammunition of twenty cartridges. But the hostile power was too great for him to be able to take part in the morning of the 26th. Who had succeeded in attacking the large-scale salt-mine buildings, he soon withdrew to the heights of the Johannisberges, repulsing every demand for resignation. Having, however, repulsed a two-fold attack, he finally, in order to avoid the danger of being completely surrounded by the enemy's power of 14 times stronger, was in a perfect order, but swarmed by persecutors Butzbach. Unfortunately, Houschard had succeeded in advancing the small Hessian army with a detachment of cavalry and two guns of riding artillery on a detour, and cut off every other road near Ostheim.

Nevertheless, Captain Mondorf did not despair, formed his mansion into a quadrangle, and demanded them to be steadfast.

When, on the other hand, the swarm of pursuers became more and more frequent, and the enemy artillery rode several Rouen, and the last patriot was also fired, there was, of course, no longer to be avoided, and the repeated request to hear a Humboldt accompanied by a trumpeter to stretch out the weapons, and indeed with honors, had done, for the enemy had been fought to the utmost.

Even in the ferocious case of Houschard, this resistance was founded on the highest esteem, for he was not only anxious to ensure the slayings of the insults of the furious and the snorting national volunteers, and of the numerous wounded, and of a five-hour struggle, exhausted all his care, he also returned the swords to those of the Hessian officers, generous, with his own hand, who led them so honorably.

On the other hand Eüstine ordered the small company of the captured Hesse to be brought to Frankfurt on the following day, in a triumphant campaign, but this too was a complete failure, for they were not the victors, but the vanquished. If, indeed, the undecided firmness of the mind, which had been attracted to the quiet, solemn faces of the patriotic warriors, as well as the quiet endurance of the numerous wounded among them, had a profound effect upon the oppressed multitude of their enemies.  The true course of the action among the prisoners of Frankfurt is a sympathetic part in enthusiasm. On all sides, the prisoners were given money and refreshments, and the most distinguished ladies vied with each other, to find the wounded by their own hands the most suitable rush.

When, however, the General Adjuant, in vain, attacked the prisoners in a conspicuous speech, and passed into the ranks of the fighters for liberty, and bade in vain generous rewards, and as his father-in-law warrior, they remain to me from the body, we are Hesse and "want to remain Hesse! "The people who were about to break into a dazzling jubilation, and there was not much that the boldest crowd would have the prisoners under the eyes of the enemy troops and in the midst of the hostile armies

The people of Frankfurt and Hesse may, therefore, remember with the right pride of that time, for while elsewhere the people were immersed in dullness, or dying in helpless fear, letting everything pass freely, or even in the wild feverish tune, to the false idols , While princes, without fear of the dignity of their crowns, stepped in the dust, and, more than one, the commandments of hostile generals to show them lackey feats, they sneered defenselessly into the hands of the enemy of the inhabitants of Frankfurt Their oppressors, and mocked their threats, and in Hesse? As in the days of Philip the Great, and William of the permanent country, poor Danern-Kenrad, on the marks of the Emperor, the fearless heart of love and fidelity for his prince, boldly strengthened the strong arm and Trutz.

As it seems, the mere knowledge of this uprising of the people prepared for him in Hesse, suffocated in the fearful mind of Custine every desire for further undertakings.

At least he contented himself with the Hessian territory with the possession of Bergen and Windecken; A timidity which, even upon his subordinate propaganda, as a few patrols, which had been sent against Hanau, blocked the gates of most of the castles, which had been hoisted up in the region with raised walls, and found the inhabitants resolved resolutely At the same time, the tutelage of Marktkobbel, an old veteran, had made himself felt by the audacity with which he despised the enemies who were desirous of gaining entry from a fortress; They also try to find out what it would cost them to conquer market builders.

Meanwhile, at the beginning of November, it was the campaign of the Champagne. The main army at Koblenz, angling and succesive, along the right bank of the Lahn, to Herborn, in Canton Kirchberg. Even before that, all the home troops, which had remained unavailable, were assembled at Marburg, and by the return of the infantry corps, which was enrolled in Champagne, from 8500 armed men, while 3700 men of Darmstadt troops found themselves assembled in and near Giessen.

The state of extreme exhaustion of the crew and horses of the Prussian army, and the necessity of providing footwear and ammunition in particular, required, however, a certain delay in the opening of the offensive operations against Cüstine, which the King of Prussia desired with impatience. But after these requirements had finally been procured towards the end of November, and the Landgraves of Hesse-Kassel and Hesse-Darmstadt had made the cooperation of their group of troops into the undertaking of liberating Frankfurt from the enemy, and having driven it across the Rhine on the 26th of November.

Meanwhile Cüstine had also gained considerable reinforcements. As, however, a large portion of it was used for the occupation, from Mainz, and for covering the left Rhine river, its main power, assembled at a maximum in Central, was no more than 18-20,000 men. In addition, Honschard, with about 4000 Manu, stood in an entrenched position near Ober-Ursel near Homburg, and 2000 man under General van Helten formed the occupation of Frankfurt. The total power of the allies amounted to about 30 to 34,000 men (including 11 battalions, 5 light companies, and 9 Escadron Hessians, together 6624 men and 767 horses).

If the allies had simply advanced in the manner of the operations of the war of seven years, with the combined forces of Custine at Höchst, this would most likely have retreated to Mainz without a blow, and had cleared Frankfurt of its own accord. But if he had dared to do so with a united force, and in the stout of the Leuthner and the battle of Zorndorfer, H. With the equal energy of the will, to offer the point, it cannot be doubted that he might have suffered a decisive defeat in the bad condition and the complete lack of the killing and warfare of the greater part of his troops. What crops, however, would not have been the result of that excellent Prussia, more than sixty squadrons.  The impression which such a victory would have brought about, and which transformation of things would have brought about, cannot be overlooked. Unfortunately, it was precisely the opposite. By the Hessian Corps through 5 battalions 15 Escadrons. Troops, under the orders of the General Lieutenant v. Kalkreuth, was instructed to advance to Bergen via Glesien, Butzbach, and Friedberg, while the Prussian main army was divided into several columns and side carriages, to advance from Montabauer over Eamberg to Homburg, and the enemy position of Ober-Ursel.

As a result, the Hessian Corps, on 25 November, from Marburg, united on the 26th at Giessen with the department de General Lieutenant von Kalkreuth, in the night of the 27th, at Buybach, and in that quarter, at Friedberg, and on the 28th, after, among others, the best light troops of the advanced gaurd attacked a hostile detachment of eighty men in Bergen on the morning of this day and held captive, a position at the height of the Friedberger Warthe. At midday this day it was passed by the Prussian Colonel von Pelet to General v. Helden surrendered the invitation to leave Frankfurt, did not lead to the hoped-for success, but gave the inhabitant a renewed opportunity to accede to their patriotic sentiments, Colonel Pelet from a jubilant crowd to the flat of the commander.

Even more decidedly, this popularist, von Helden, on the morning of the twentieth, tried to seize power with the power of the bourgeoisie, when an imminent massacre took place, and the group of detainees who had been sent for this purpose was chased away, and the commanding officers were even maltreated.

A deep incident was lacking in such astonishment that he gave the magistrate not only the most succinct assurance that the city should be resisted without resistance by the French troops, but that he did not dare even miserably of his subordinates to the defenders.

In the meantime, the Hessian corps had moved close to Bergen and Seckbach. The Prussians under von Kalkreuth, however, he had thrown over Vilbel to Homburg, in order to get to the top.  Here 26 battalions and 44 escadrons had gathered 40 guns before the front of General Houschard with only 2 battalions of squadrons, and in a very insignificant manner entrenched before the upper Ursel. Yet, the Duke of Brunswick, the Prussian amice, compelled an assault on the same, and ordered that the following day be overthrown by a corps under the Prince of Hohenlohe in the left flank. The probable motives of this mode of action, founded in political combinations and intrigues, cannot be discussed in more detail here, nor is the decisive contradiction of the Duke of Brunswick against the one proposed by the royal wing advisor, Lieutenant-Colonel v. Nüchel proposed a storm of Frankfurt. It suffices to remark that at last, the king of Prussia ordered that this storm attack should be carried out by the Hessian corps, while the rest of the Prussian army was determined. To conquer the enemy's position at Ober-Ursel by circumventing it, and to prevent General Cüstine from coming to the assistance of the occupation of Frankfurt.

The latter consisted of four weak battalions (one line and three battalions of volunteers) of a small cavalry division and two three-lancers, for which there were, however, only 30 bullets and cartridges, as well as the single man of the infantry only with 30 cartridges Respectively. The fortifications of Frankfurt also consisted only of a simple main wall, and the present wet ditch, which, however, was so shallow in several places, that, as the wall was only covered with masonry at a low height, a ladder- Possibility, especially the Mange! All the outside works and the large crowd of gardens, with their pleasures and dwelling-houses which, being close to the outer part of the tomb, would have allowed themselves to approach the quick points of the enclosure. In the negligence of the enemy, which put almost no obstacles to the connection of the inhabitants to the outside, it would not have been difficult to draw the most accurate information about the appropriate places. It seems, however, that the Lieutenant-Colonel v. Nüchel, in designing the plan of attack, was all the less reckoned with by the fact that, on the basis of his assent, he believed that the doors would be opened to them at the moment of their appearance.

For this reason, a battalion of 1 Battalion, 4 Escuadrons (1. Batallion von Kospoth, and the Darmstadt-Chevaulegers Reg.) On the night of Dec. 2, at Rumpenheim, crossed the Main, and was to make an ill-attack against Sachsenhausen, while a division of the 2nd Batallion Kospoth should try to drive down the Main from hidden ships, and below the Main Bridge, the so-called " Butt gates, and then, in the interior of the city, against the All Saints' Gate. One. Column, under the General Major v. Haustein, was to attack the All Saints' or Hanau's Thor, and from the light battalion of Lenz, the grenadier Bataillon v. Cichwege, the body regiment, the 2nd Bat. Garde, the Hessian Hussar regiment and a settlement. Dragoons are assembled and gather at Bornheim. A fourth column was to attack the Friedberger or Neue Thor, and the following, under the orders of Major General v. Wurmb, 1) the Jager Battalion and the Company of Volunteers; The Guard Bat. Prince of Hesse- Philippsthal, the Guard-Grenadier-Regiment, and 1. Bat. Guard, a battery of Prussia. Heavy artillery, the Escadron Garde du Corps, and the Regiment Carabinier, and gathered at the Friedberger Warthe. Collective columns were to be attacked with the bell at 7 o'clock in the morning of the second decade. If the gates were found to be closed, the artillery should be preferred to the same; The carpentry, therefore, to join the planks of the draw-bridges, and then to join the infantry at once, and to arrange the various sections of the various columns on the line and the Rop-market.

On the morning of the 2nd of December, the patriotic troops advanced from their cantonments at Bergen and Seckbach, s. w. And were therefore found before five o'clock in the prescribed order at Vornhcim and Friedberger Wanhe. On the other hand, the Prussian army seemed to have exhausted a short time, and as a crossing of the columns took place through Vilbcl, it did not reach the Friedberger Wart until after seven o'clock. But as a fierce morning fog still surrounded the veil of Frankfurt and a veil of veil, the attacking columns could have approached the same place more surely quite unobserved than it seemed to the enemy to meet with the corresponding security institutions This delay would have had no detrimental consequences if the attack had not suffered a further delay, as a result of the retarded appearance of the King of Prussia; By the latter at eight o'clock on the summit of the Warta, accompanied by the Duke of Brunswick, surrounded by a just as splendid as a splendid retinue, under which several of the neighboring princely and countless subjects, and even some graceful Amazons, have been found should.

Though the view of the sun shining brightly at the horizon, and the illumination which had thereby been imparted to the beautiful winter landscape sunk in the sun, the stadia was the most splendid of all the patriotic warriors in their garb of armor, as they were adorned as if for a feast, full of impatient impatience, the sign of warfare and the surprise of the enemy, and the flashing of the enemy's weapons on the visible ramparts that the enemy expected the attack.

At last, at about midnight, when the solemn chanting of the Cathedral of Frankfort, calling for the solemn worship of God, was begun, orders were given for the advance; But the columns can be kept in march when suddenly the order by the Duke of Brunswick. Lieutenant-Colonel v. Nüchel, who was at the head of the fourth column, hastened to the top of the fourth column, and presented in a respectful manner, but with a firm, decided tone, how he would like to make his honor, as his own, into this success.

This also had the desired result, and the column continued its march. Now, mingling with the minutes after the most precious had been lost, was almost advanced, and the presupposition of finding the doors open seemed to be realized, for when the book of the fourth column was based on a hostile foreign policy to approach the Friedberger gate, it was plainly clear; The largest drawbridge was left over. Although the huntsmen at the head were at once to throw themselves upon them with loud shouts of laughter, the enemy guards succeeded in raising them up as the most advanced ones were only a few steps away The enemies exhibited on the ramparts and in the fortress of Burbur, immediately directed a violent enemy to the rushing.

The Jäger, by doing so, moved as quickly as possible into the garden, which was situated on either side of the Heerstraße, and returned here, covered with garden houses and by walls and hedges, but the more murderous was the effect of that Enemy troops from the Grenadier battalion of the Regiment Guard and Guard Grenadier, who had been formed by the grenadier companies of the Regiments Guard and Guard Grenadier, especially by the hubbub of the Jäger, and following them in blind haste until the outer grave.

Could his brave princely leader consider it inconceivable to retire at once, or may he hope to seize an opportunity, nevertheless, to force the entrance, instead of retiring into a secure position, and determining the extent of the effect of the effect He remained at the edge of the trench, and thereby led the densely following Hanover colony to enter the sphere of the perilous enemy sphere, in as much as the rumor that the door was open had been spat out, Therefore, to believe it was necessary to declare the Grenadier battalion to enter the narrow gateway.

Now, the Heerstraße, here, by hanging buildings, high garden walls, s. w. On both sides, was narrowed and narrowed, very soon there was a heavy thrust of the rear detachments, whereby the troops, more than 2,000 men, were almost defenseless, and the effect of the enemy's bullets simply looked as if they were not much more needed for their enemies to lay their rifles on the brigade of the rampart, or to put them in the shooting-sticks of the tower, and to print them blindly, and yet to be certain of the meeting.

Under these circumstances the fire, which was made by the Grenadier Battalion Philippshal, and a part of the Guard Grenadier regiment. Against which on the enemies ramparts will not be of considerable effectiveness. In the meantime, however, this mutual fire had lasted for almost half an hour, and it was not until the greater part of the ammunition had been shot, Donop and the Captain v. Wolff and von Münchhausen had fallen to his death, Colonel-Prince Charles of Hesse-Philippsthal, as well as the Captain v. Desclaires and the Lt. von Rademacher had been cut down by fatal wounds, and several others by severe wounds, and more than a sixth of the Grenadier Battalion. The body of this battalion, on the right and on the left, began to break through the satisfaction of the Heerstrasse, in order, like the Jäger, to take a position which was more covered by the murderous hostile fire. While the Guard Grenadier Regiment, however, behind the 1. Battalion Guard was withdrawn, in order to be reorganized here, in as much as, inevitably under these circumstances, something was in confusion.

As a result of the advance of these men on the Battalion Guard, which was almost the whole breadth of the road, there was also a certain movement in this group, which was the command of the regiment. Colonel v. Benning caused his dear, thunderous voice to be heard. If you will stand still, the first of the place will give way, I run the sword through my body. Whereupon the crew, motionless, with a rifled rifle, underneath the enemy bullets, which were now spreading out in their ranks and wounds.

Fortunately, however, these hostile fires, probably from deficit of deficiency, very soon ceased, and after some time existed only from individual shots.
Meanwhile, the Prussian. Heavy battery, as well as two mortars, had been driven up about 1500 paces from the ramparts to the left of the Friedberger Strasse, but the gateway could not be shot at this position, and the effect of this cannonade was limited to a few bombs and shells to throw the scattered bullets into the city, which hoped to incite the inhabitants to a more active assent. In addition, after the 1st Battalion of the Guard had finally been withdrawn, two Hessian battalion guns were under the Lieutenant. v. Riepe on the road of the Heerstrasse, on the opposite side of the road, which at once caused a fierce, but almost ineffectual, fire against the drawbridge, and thereby lost the greater part of their crew, by the more agitated enemy councilors Was compelled to supplement them several times.

Almost simultaneously with the attacks on the cemetery, the third column had also appeared before the All Saints' Gate and had found this, however, closed. As, however, the injurious circumstance did not take place here, the Battalion of Lenz, placed behind a well-placed garden wall, with the enemies exhibited on the ramparts, was a very active one b little murderous chimney fire, while two Hessian Battalion guns under the lieutenant Engelhard, but unfortunately also unsuccessfully as the main column remained out of the range of the gun, and thus suffered no loss.

On these two points the battle continued in this way for a considerable time, the following incidents had taken place in the interior of the town. The commander, van Helden, had, on the news of the approach of the enemy column, immediately informed General Custine of the news, and distributed the garrison in the following manner: 200 men held Sachsenhausen, 80 men occupied the tower on the main river, Line troops, 1 bat. Volunteers, the two guns, and the rehabilitation, were all set aside from the line, but the rest were so distributed; Every gate was occupied by about 100 men, every barrack occupied by 30-50 men. He himself had gone to the Friedberger gate, and, postponing the possibility of the resistance, was on the point of approaching the advancing storm-column, in order to establish negotiations, had, however, been prevented by his own men.

On the other hand, many of the volunteer battalion , who were on the ramparts, took the flight at the mere sight of the approaching columns of attack, even though they could only shoot one shot, For example, 1 bureaucrat and 20 men of the Guard. Company of the 3 battalion of the Niederrheins, who was confided in the defense of the Friedberger gate. At the same time a large number of officers, armed men, and knights, gathered in the vicinity of this gate, and were whispering and screaming by General v. Helden demanded the opening of the gate, and also rejected some ordinances sent by him, but he did not dare to undertake quietly against this hustle and bustle.

In the meantime, General v. helden had finally succeeded in giving the reserve, which was issued from the line, to let each of the attacked gates, under cover of a company, print one of the guns. No sooner had that happened, however, set in motion, than another Bolkhans, who had assembled there, had followed them, and fell upon them, after a short hand, and the wheels of the guns In pieces. It was true that another part of the reserve had been set in motion to assist the attacked; Since, however, in these. When the first bombs dropped from the line, the battalions were so terrified that, with the exception of the two corporations, they set out, with the exception of the two corporations, in a wild flight to the Bockheimer Gate, as well as of many national guard volunteers, coming from the ramparts individually, was all the more imitated when several burghers shouted to them that the hopes were already in the city, and would not give a pardon; They would not hesitate to save themselves. And the miserable demeanor of the soldiers, who was intimidated by the threats of the crowds of people around him, not only left Friedberg's door to go to his apartment on the line, but also himself a division of the lineage from which it was possible to make a free course with the force of arms, encouraged the boldest masses of people to become more and more delicate.

As soon as half past ten o'clock, the little drawbridge, which had been intended for pedestrians, had been shot at the Friedberger Gate, while that section of the French line-sweepers was now beginning to penetrate a new hut, a Hanseatic artisan clasped his heart Below the arch of the river, while some of the waggles were climbing the ropes, and broke the celestials of the great drawbridge with heavy forging-hammers, so that they thundered.

The attacks, which had been longing outside the town of Creiguiss, had long been attracted to their attention by the vigor of the small drawbridge. And when, therefore, the great drawbridge fell down, the commandment advanced in the stifling jubilation, with which the 1st Battalion of Guards, with the unprecedented impetuosity, fell from the same moment.

Four companies of the battalions immediately pressed forward without an eccentric, under the sound of a drum-beat and with a wild Victora cry, interrupted by the cry: "Death to the Custine!" The Custine is to die: along the Friedbergerstrasse, to the time before, and made every effort to resist the bayonet. The Garde Grenadier Regiment followed them in a closed column, Lieutenant v. Selchow, who had passed through the narrow gateway too long, had gone too long, followed by a certain crew, and had passed through it, half swimming, and was, with the sword in the wall, the wall of the patriotic warriors Was greeted with loud cheers by the inhabitants of Frankfurt. Many windows were flocked to welcome white towels, and some ladies even found themselves so far, the first. Officer, or soldier, to embrace them most tenderly, while they endeavored, at the same time, to endeavor to snatch vanquished or wounded Frenchmen into the wrath of the victors.

In the meantime, the 5th company of the 1st Battalion Guard, the Lieutenant v. Stodhansen, with thirty men, who were still to be driven above the Thorweg on the ramparts. The enemies, in the number, the guns, stretched a lively hand on the stairs leading to it. The remainder of the wall was cleared partly by the Jager Company, and partly by the Grenadier Batallion. v. Philippsthal.

Almost at the same time as the Fredberger Gate, the All Saints' Gate had been opened by a bunch of craftsmen. The 1st Batallion Leib regiment, and the Hussars, to the line of the line, and here, shortly before 1 o'clock,  were united with the 1st Batallion Guard Regiment and the Regiment Guard Grenadier.

Van Helden, meanwhile, had yielded to the requests and threats of the magistrate, and decided to capitalize. The adjutant captain who was, however, adjourned by him to the Friedberg Court, arrived here,In the meantime, however, he succeeded to succeed him to Major General v. Worm. Captain Muller of the Regiment Garde ordered the adjuant captain to be accompanied by a small detachment, in order to stop the enemy from all sides, and to protect the French, as much as possible, from the first outbursts of the storm.

Although the latter intention could not always be achieved with success, this was mainly due to the fact that, besides the. Which had been proved by the greatest part of the garrison, a few Frenchmen, still the most stubborn resistance, and covered with wounds, despised every pardon. It may be assured, therefore, that the patriotic warriors, with a few exceptions, were not stifled by atrocities by the atrocities of the nobles, who are the more honored men, who are honored with their grandeur and proven humanity. Just as it is proved by a notarial deed that in the streets of the town only seven were killed and 19 were wounded and wounded on the ramparts 34 wounded and 129 wounded.

At the same time, General van Helden, for a moment, was in danger of falling as a victim of the fierce exasperation which filled the hearts of the patriotic warriors against General Cüstine, because of the reproaches which the latter had made against his prince. By this time the rumors that Cüstine was still in the dwelling of commanders, several Hessian soldiers who had sworn him to death had been encouraged to steal from the limbs, surrounded by a like-minded raging folk fan to encircle that building. Indeed, one of them had already attacked van Helden, who had entered the window, and was confused with Cüstine, when one of his men had succeeded in turning the gun to the side, so that the shot did not hurt anyone And, moreover, some of the officers who had been surrendered to the walls of the building, had no further consequences, and the accustomed zeal of the officers very soon caused a great agitation To which the presence of the King of Prussia, who had accompanied the Duke of Brunswick, followed the Hessian columns contributed greatly.

The troops which had entered the town were at once employed to occupy the ramparts, from the Main to the Bockheim and Eschenheim gates. These measures were all the more necessary, as the enemy had already so closely approached Botticelli's Gate with some of the battalions sent from Bockheim to the occupation, that the Jagers, who first arrived here, had only time to spare the drawbridge and what is going on between them and the vanguard! A hostile rifle-fire was opened to the enemy's detachment.

At the same time, the pre-eminence of the Prussian main armies marched between the Friedberger Warthe and Preungesheim (the Prince of Prussia, Prince Charles, the squadron of Eben Husaren, and a heavy battery) exhibited at the Bertram Court, So General Reuwinger withdrew. Who had commanded those enemy detachments, immediately returned to Bockenheim, and returned to the Huller, on the one hand by the Hussars of Eben, and on the other by the Hessian Garde du Corps, Carabiners, Hussars, and Chevallets, together with 16 Escadrons ) was lively, but, as it seems, was followed with no success.

After several lively but little murderous canons, Neuwinger retreated from Bockenheim to Roedelheim, and from there to the main station, Cüstine, to Höchst, which retreated to Mainz and Hochheim on the night of December 3rd.

The various corps, into which the army of the allies were fragmented, were crowded in the districts on the night of December 3, in the districts situated at their sites. The brigade v. Eochenhausen (Prince Hereditary Prince and 2nd Prince Prince Charles) at Bockenheim, the Grenad. Bat. From Philippsthal and the regiments of Garde and Garde Grenadier to Frankfurt, the rest of the Hessian corps in the mountains, Seckbach, s. w. The patriotic warriors, though they had been obliged to bring under the rifle by seven o'clock in the evening, the king of Prussia ordered that three battalions of Prussia should occupy all posts during the night, in order to give the Hessian troops complete peace; By the valorous inhabitants of Frankfurt, with food and drink, almost to the utmost extent. No less were the inhabitants of the Hessian districts, which were at first situated, with all sorts of refreshments, and showed the greatest sadness.

Soldiers gave the donations of the Frankfurters the advantage over theirs. In particular, a baker from Bergen, who, in his patriotic enthusiasm, had baked an immense quantity of apple-cakes, and, together with a bottle of apple-wine, brought the woman and child to Frankfort, with the help of the Harde Grenadier Regiment Wailing as the soldiers, who had already been overpowered, despised his gifts until an officer came to the thought. To propose to him to turn his hospitality to the hussars. Which were exhibited in front of the Bockenheim Gate, may not have enjoyed the same original influence. He went on this with joyful hurry, but asked for an escort so that, as he said, his apple cake, baked only for his pious brethren, would not be given to others. This request was given to him, and indeed he was to be exempted from the hussars with rejoicing, and his joy was in no way limited to him, by the use of some officers, accompanied by some commanding officers, to one of them to ride.


Every friend of the Vatican must have a great satisfaction that the bravery of the patriotic patriarchs, in spite of manifold mistakes in arrangement and execution, nevertheless proved themselves by the way to the most glorious, with which officers and soldiers with heroic constancy death and wretchedness Had defied. Underneath, build the Major v. Donop of the Guardian Grenadier Regiment had given the most vigorous example, although, with two severe wounds, bleeding and unable to sustain himself without support, he did not move from the front of his company, until at last a third bullet stretched him to the ground. Likewise, Colonel-Prince Charles of Hessen-Philippsthal, who had been crushed by the Schrnkclnknochs, had almost been able to be moved by force only to be carried out of the battle; Even soldiers, who had been seriously wounded, returned to their ranks, after having been dressed, as, in particular, with the Guardian Grenadier Regiment, several such bravery became impotent, with the loss of blood, and even dying together for a considerable time on the line. At the same time, however, a great deal of noble blood had been shed, for seven officers and 75 soldiers covered deathly or deathly wounds, and officers and 93 men were usually seriously injured, and the total loss amounted to 18 officers and 168 men.



Rich were the donations of dignities and honors, with which, at least in the leaders, the proven bravery of the humble army was rewarded not less by the King of Prussia, and by the Land Prince. In addition to numerous promotions, including the General Majors von Wurmb to General Lieutenant, and the Colonel von Bennning as Major General, received the Hessian Orde: the Colonel v. Steel from the Garde du Corp. The General v. Dallwigk of the Karabiniers, the Major v. Offenbach of the Reg. Garde, the Colonel v. Fuchs and Kapirain v. Hachenberg of the Garde Grenadier Regiment, the Lieutenants of Riepe and Engelhard of the artillery, the Prussian Kapilain v. Kleist and the Lieutenants v. Trent and v. Rade. The colonel prince of Hesse, Philippsthal, and Lieutenant General von Hess, Biesenrodt and the Order for the Colonel v. Benning of the Regiment Guard, Colonel-Colonel of the Hussars, Colonel v. Lenz from the light infantry, Major v. Mop, Commander of the Jäger, Major and Wingadjutant v. Heister,  Captain v. Marquardt and Wiederholt of the General Staabe. Ruchel, on the other hand, who had been exhausted from the horse by his exertions, and which had been exhausted from the line by his previous exertions, was pardoned. He was promoted to colonel and governor, and received the great red eagle's order.

The king of Prussia, gave a gift of the money to every man of the Grenadier battalion of Philipsthal, and to the regiment of Garde and Garde Grenadier, and to the corpse of the whole corps, one for every unofficial, and for both the monarchs the most ample donations to the support of the wounded and the widows and orphans of those who remained.

In particular, Landgraf, who had been personally at Frankfurt on the 6th of December, had a supreme order as early as the 8th of December, in which, in addition to the acknowledgment and gratitude for the services rendered by the troops, all those who had been injured and the widows and orphans of those who remained , double pensions were insured.

In a Heerschau, on the 9th of December, on the Grenadier battalion of Philippsthal, Landgraf felt the deepest shock as he crossed the limbs, and missed many of his well-known warriors, and almost always returned to his inquiries after them. Seriously wounded! In his eyes he investigated the nature of their injuries. And in what manner you and their survivors! Sad destiny would be most easily mitigated. At the same time, the orders which he had made with regard to the care of the wounded, with a good deal of goodwill, could not be attained, because the noble inhabitants of Frankfurt turned to such an active participation and such a care, As every wish had been. The magistrate had not only been admitted to the Bürget Hospital, but was also dependent on a considerable amount of lumber for their food, while for the same purpose, under the guidance of the most distinguished ladies, a French society had been in effect Vied to prepare the sufferers for every comfort, and to personally offer them the best possible refreshment and refreshment. No less by means of voluntary contributions and by the church, than by the proceeds of plays, concretions, and bales, a considerable mute for the support of the frail, as well as for the widows and orphans of those who had remained, was repeated, and this collection was repeated even on the first anniversary of the assault.

But also the gifts of the love of one's own people were not lacking, the more touching, as they were often those of poverty. For example, For example, sent by their own messengers of the hospital, poultry, large violets of wine, and other rural licking-places, so that the sick of the inhabitants of the village should be remembered, and the inhabitants of the locality of Flea in the narrow-valley, Holzhauer, charcoal-burner, and miners, gathered together to form a collection and donated to the community of the community, who had participated in storming. Which even the Le Moniteur states: La Noblesse à Floh contributed a few thousand francs to reward the sufferers of Franfurt.

Even death was not forgotten. Frederick William II of Prussia reads a memorial to her memory, generous and worthy of a king, where the majority bleed to erect a monument in front of the Friedberger Gate of Frankfurt.

May the Hesse be satisfied with a just pride, so that the virtues of his fathers acquired such a recognition as no other army can boast of the same or similar, and that honor is an all the more unsuspecting testimony, as a foreign hand, consecrated to the glory of his people; So a sorrowful, painful gesture, the Brun, because at the same time it must be designated as the only one by which the patriotic war-war of posterity is proclaimed. For if the capital of the country is to be counted among the most beautiful in the valley of the valley, it is the least of all that can be animated by the memory of a glorious past for the future. Thus it may not be found wholly inappropriate, if in a few words a description of a monument is made, which at the same time has become such a royal and generous sense of that monarch, and which, in spite of his skill in the matter Germany, was so incurably profoundly affected, many weaknesses, but always a heartfelt memory of the hearts of every father-in-law of Hesse, who, for a people's honor, will always remain alive in the people.

In front of native basalts, a nineteen-foot-high, and even wider, cube is erected, on the edge of which are travertines of black marble, five and a half feet, and the first year and day of the beer Perpetuated event, while the second bears the inscription:


Friedrich Wilhelm ll. King of Prussia, the noble Hessians who had been victorious in the struggle for the Fatherland;

The surface is adorned by an ancient tower, which is painted by a lion's skin with a hanging colossal lion's head, while a colossal helmet, a shield, and a herculeum, leaning against it in a sensual grouping, adorn the emblems, as well as the inscription tablets of the enemy's conquered conquerors.

Thus, we believe that we have fulfilled the task posed, whether to the satisfaction of our readers, we must be set aside; Nevertheless, we can not lower the pen, without first putting one of our longing desires into words.

It would not be possible to pass a half-century before the Hessian men, with an irresistible force, were storming against the gates of Frankfort, surrounded by clouds of steam, but not of destructive fire, but of a raging locomotive; In the meantime, those designs would mature and be executed, whereby all Germany will be embroiled with iron gratitude, but with bonds which will strengthen and revive love, concord, and brotherhood.

Would not any Hesse, therefore, refrain from leading his son, who was maturing to the youth, to the place of patriotic fame, out of the grave of patriotic heroes, in order to become more solemn than the ancestors, a hundred years may still be said, the Hessian people is still what was always, and what was written in its flags and shields:

Brave and faithful!


Hessen monument at the Friedberger Tor. around 1850

Hessendenkmal, Frankfurt am Main

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Translated Extract from: 
Die Erstürmung von Frankfurt durch die Hessen am 2. Dezember 1792
Ditfurth, Maximilian Joseph Carl von, 1842



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