Saturday, July 29, 2017

Cüstine and the Storming of Frankfurt am Main by the Hesse in 1792

Adam Philippe, Comte de Cüstine 

Cüstine und die Erstürmung FranKfurt's a. M. durch die Hessen im Jahre 1792
(translated extract)

The section of the history of Hesse and Frankfurt a. M. has been shown several times; But it seemed to me worthwhile for a second treatment for two reasons. It relates to an event which is highly praiseworthy both for the peoples and for the city of Frankfurt, and I was also in a position to present some unknown contributions. It is self-evident that I have shared the existing arrangements, especially the memoirs of the Freiherrn von Ditfurth (Cassel, 1864), and the extract from them, which had already appeared before them, and which had the title: The storming of Frankfurt through the Hessians On December 2, 1792 (Cassel 1843, second edition).

In August 1792 the war of France had begun with Austria and Prussia, on which the German Reich did not at first take part, to which, however, the Landgraf of Hesse-Cassel, as the allies of Prussia, had placed a corps of 6000 men. As early as September 20, this war, through the famous cannonade at Valmy, received an unfavorable turn for the Germans, In August 1792 the war of France had begun with Austria and Prussia, on which the German Reich did not at first take part, to which, however, the Landgraf of Hesse-Cassel, as the allies of Prussia, had placed a corps of 6000 men. As early as September 20, this war, through the famous cannonade at Valmy, received an unfavorable turn for the Germans, and various circumstances caused the latter to withdraw soon. Her retreat began last September. On the 24th of October, when the news of the surprise of the fortress of Mainz by the French arrived at the German headquarters, it was accelerated as quickly as possible because, by the fall of Mainz, the Prussian treasures accumulated in Coblenz were threatened. On the evening of the 25th of October the city of Coblenz, the Prussian avant-garde of Hesse, reached its peak.

After the Germans had retreated, the French had made a diversion from Landau, in order to take possession of the great Austrian magazine, which had been erected in Speyer, and then to make further conquests, or at least to extort money. That magazine had been guarded by 7,000 Austrians and 2,000 men of Central troops; But on the 11th of September they had been summoned to the siege of Thionville, with only about three thousand men, and on September 29th the Franks sent the General Custerine, with about 8,000 men, to the attack of Speyer. Cüstine took possession of the gargoyles and of the local magazine, as well as the town of Worms. False rumors of the arrival of German troops immediately induced him to retreat. But in the middle of October he broke up again, so as to surprise Mainz. This main fortress of the German Empire was in a state of great neglect, and had a weak occupation; But with its sufficient supplies and guns, it would have been easy to keep the weak Corps Cüstine, which carried only field guards, if the gentlemen of the civil government, as well as all the military leaders, had not been fearful and headless except one.  On the 19th of October, after a few innocent shots had been fired, Cüstine ordered the fortress to be surrendered, and on the same day they declared themselves ready for capitulation. This was concluded in the early morning of the 21st of October, and immediately the French arrived at Mainz.

On the same day Cüstine sent two thousand men against the city of Frankfurt. These troops marched through the night into two detachments and in various ways, one of the weaker (500 men) under Colonel Houchard on the right, the other (1500 men) under General Neuwinger on the left side of Main. The first arrived first at Frankfurt, on the 22nd of October at daybreak. It encamped on the field in front of the Bockenheimer Thor, which at that time was still largely agricultural; Their cannons were directed to this gate, the drawbridge of which was being reared. At once the council, which had already assembled the day before at the news of the capitulation of Mainz, came together anew. His meeting lasted all day and into the Nachk. The first thing to do was to send a deputation to Houchard to ask him what the purpose of his appearance was. The answer was that he was still expecting other troops, and demanded nothing more than food and wood for cooking against payment, both were sent out at noon. Many of the inhabitants went to see the unexpected guests, partly to the town hall, and partly through the narrow gate of the town gate, which was open for pedestrians. The French, however, soon sent several officers to the city to visit and arrest French aristocrats. Dieselben, accompanied by councilors, went to some inns, arrested three men, and led them into the camp as prisoners.

At about three o'clock in the afternoon the troops from Neuwinger appeared before Saxonyhausen. Raths-deputies went to them at once. Neuwinger declared that he had a letter from Ober-General Cüstine to the Council. He was asked to be sent to the deputies; But he replied that he had the order to write this in his own person and at the head of his troops to the assembled council. In vain, the deputy appealed to Frankfurt's neutrality, which did not permit the entry of troops. When this was no use, the deputy returned by the city gate, and had the bridge erected before the same. But French cannons were at once advanced against the gate. When the deputies saw this, they lowered the bridge and opened the door. Resistance was impossible because they had been attacked unexpectedly, so they were not prepared. Now the French advanced, with sounding games and with the cry of Vive Ia liberte! Both on the other side of the river and into the city. They were immediately quartered with the inhabitants, who, as well as the French soldiers themselves, thought themselves to be in the greatest measure, that it was only a transit to Hesse. As most of the soldiers of this corps were elders, and spoke German, they were close to the inhabitants from the very beginning, and a friendly relation was formed between the two parts. The troops also acted well, and they had nothing more to do with them, than they were unclean, and were very great with their republic and their military superiority. They paid for everything they received from their hosts, or from barbers, bakers, butchers, and shopkeepers, at once, and a commandment issued by Neuwinger three days after their entry had made them particularly aware of the fact, the name of a French soldier by violating the most sacred laws and respect for property. Her cannons had first taken her on the horse market, but her horses had been placed on the present Goethe site.

From the very beginning, the inhabitants had so little believed in the hostile intentions of the French that they had set themselves up on the ramparts and in the streets. They were already disappointed on the first day; For Cüstine, when he had placed a part of his troops across the Rhine, evidently had the chief intention of taking a robbery. Neuwinger, who took his quarters in the red house or the present post office on the Zeil, immediately after his entry into the city handed over to the Council a letter dated October 21st, published in a barbarous manner: the protection which was given in Frankfurt Had been granted to the French emigrants, the favor of them proved too plainly to enable General Cüstine to demand a burn-up of the inhabitant; Neuwinger will display the amount of the amount; He was also commissioned to seize the funds which Oestreich and Prussia had placed in Frankfurt. "What I demand," concluded the letter, "is moderately in proportion to the enormous cost of war which has given protection to our most cruel enemies." The delivery of this letter accompanied Neuwinger with the explanation that the fire was estimated to be two million guilders, And the next day at twelve o'clock at the latest.

Immediately after this unprecedented demand, the council decided to send a deputation to Cüstine for the purpose of avoiding it, but at the same time to provide money as quickly as possible for the extreme emergency. The latter, owing to the absence of any superfluous money in the city treasury, was to be borne by a voluntary loan of four per cent. A printed call was therefore issued urging the Banquets and Capitalists, as well as every other citizen, to deliver all expenditures to the Calculation Office (the municipal finance authority) by the next morning. This call was made during the night of 22/23. October from house to house, and had the expected success. From early morning the citizens hurried to the Romans to make contributions. They appeared in such numbers that the men charged with the acceptance of the funds had to look for their help. The people of the handicraft stand appeared particularly numerous. Poor peasants also brought their savings, and many of them, like many of the empires, rejected the pledge of interest. A poor widow, who is an annual contribution of 40 Xr. Had brought not only the portion of her treasury which was not yet due, but she also paid for the next year. At the same time, there was a strong exasperation at the same time as this patriotic excitement about the French, so that an outbreak of them was to be feared. On the 23rd of October, therefore, the council felt compelled to publish a manifesto of the subject: he urged the citizens to remain masters of their sentiments, and not to allow any action against the French soldiers; At the same time, he assured us that nothing had yet been given of the demanded contribution, but that the most careful negotiations had been initiated, and that it might be expected that the misunderstanding underlying the demand would be raised.

On the evening of October 22, a letter of advice had been written to Cüstine for the purpose of obtaining the withdrawal of the Contributions. On the following day, the deputation, which consisted of Humbracht, the Senator Moors, and the Syndicus Seeger, was brought to Mainz. His object was that the council was, through that demand, painfully astonished Has been set; For the stated motive, the support of the French emigrants, was by no means applicable to the attitude of Frankfort so far, since the magistracy of this city had tolerated no armaments from the emigrants; Therefore, be asked to give the honorable attention to what the Rath deputation would bring, and to allow themselves to be moved by their teachings to withdraw the demand for contributions. In addition to this letter, the deputy handed over a list of the decrees which the council had issued in respect of the French emigrants from May, 1791; It was evident from the fact that the latter had rejected a plea of Count d'Artois and the desired purchase of municipal cannons, and had repelled and punished repeated attempts to recruit soldiers in Frankfurt.

On October 24, the deputation returned from Mainz. Neuwinger had commanded a German proclamation a day before, and, when the council refused to do so, and exclaimed under drumbeat, and distributed it in print, the content of which was not imposed on all citizens and inhabitants of the town, But only to the Frankfurt Patricians, as well as to the spiritual, electoral, princely, and noble and aristocratic properties situated in the city. In reply to the letters sent by the Raths, deputies, the latter made the following written statement by Cüstine , with the files sent to him, by no means the non-participation of the Frankfurt council in the hustle and bustle of the emigrants; On the contrary, that the many prohibitions on the occupation of troops which were in it were proof of the fact that it had been promulgated, and that they had not been seriously and vigorously opposed; Also that prohibitions had not been voluntarily given, but in consequence of the invitation of the Reichs regiment to expel the emigrants; The articles, which were hostile to France, of the newspapers published under censorship in the city, also showed the attitude which had been animated in Frankfurt; The council should therefore look at its error, and join a revolution which will restore the peoples to their old rights, their revenge will be felt only by the traitors, and the cost of the war will be directed only to the instigators and beneficiaries; In spite of the injustice committed by the Frankfurt Council, the French nation granted an allowance of half a million to the demanded contribution; But the council should no longer hesitate with the payment.

Since Neuwinger had now threatened to take up compulsory measures, which were to be carried out with fire and sword, the inhabitants became so terrified that the magistrate was persuaded to make a payment of contributions to appease the threat. On the 24th of October, he ordered General Neuwinger to pay 300,000 francs, but with the explanation that this payment, as well as all the rest, was to be regarded as a deposit given to the French nation. At the same time, in a special letter, accompanied by a detailed note, he drew General Cüstine's attention to the fact that a demand for contributions, which was to be taken only by the rich and the nobles, could not be satisfied by the town-station belonging to every citizen. As the note went on, it was based on the erroneous concept which the French generals had of the Frankfurt city constitution. This constitution knows no distinction between the estates and rights, but rather regards all citizens as equal, and obliges them to carry the common burdens, according to their individual capacity. Thus, neither by the City Court could the payment of the contribution be made legally, nor could an exception be made to the detriment of individual citizens, even when it was paid. But as regards the possessions of princes, counts, and spiritual penitents within the territory of the city, they are, on the one hand, too small to allow a payment of one and a half million, and their proprietors, on the other hand, Cannot be forced to pay by the magistrate. Moreover, it is still impossible to recover from the astonishment that the town was charged with a contribution because, according to an earlier assurance, Cüstine's neutral states should not be regarded as enemies; Even the French troops in the city, which were not admitted as enemies, and who had been received as brothers, were surprised that Frankfurt was to be scolded.

This letter was handed over to General Cüstine on October 24th by a second deputation.  It had the success that the latter expressed himself more clearly by making a German proclamation of the subject-matter known, that the demand for contributions did not affect the poorer part of the citizenship, and that General Neuwinger should not raise the money according to the number of guilds According to their wealth. At the same time Cüstine gave the following written explanation in reply to this advice: that the people of the city of Frankfurt had not offended the French nation by favoring the emigrants, by means of degenerate articles of the time, and that General Neuwinger had wrongfully done the people Payment. "The aristocracy of the rich, added Cüstine, is the most dreadful of all; The rich throws the public burdens on the poor; This has prompted the revolution in France, and will bring it to Germany. "At the same time Cüstine asked the Council to lend him, in defense of the conquest made by the French republic, the twenty-four pounders, together with their ammunition, in the Frankfurt Zeughaus He added, half a million was to be paid to the Contribution, but he demanded that this legacy was only for the poorer class.

Once again the Council sought to convince Cüstine in a letter that Frankfurt had not in any way violated its neutrality, and was therefore unjustified with a contribution. The admission of emigrants to the city of Frankfurt was merely an act of private hospitality, which did not involve a violation of neutrality, and to Mannheim and Heidelberg to a far greater extent, without the French republic having ceased to be friendly to the Palatine court to behave. The exchanges of individual Frankfurt houses, which had come to the emigrants, had been effected by foreign powers; They also escape the knowledge of the magistrate; The sums which had been used for this purpose were not drawn from France, whose national treasury had also received cash from Frankfurt; But that Frankfurt merchants had put wrong assignments into circulation, has proved to be untrue. Moreover, we had not yet thought of repartitioning the sum of contributions required under the bourgeoisie; Rather, the inhabitants had been asked for a voluntary interest-bearing loan, and had no intention of burdening the ill-treated class. Finally, it was said that the inviolable neutrality and the association which the city attached to the German empire did not allow the French army of Frankfurt guns and ammunition to be lent.

This letter was sent to Mainz on 26 October. On the same day Neuwinger insisted on the immediate further payment of contributions. In vain he was asked to await the reply to that letter; On the contrary, he pronounced the firm determination to carry out the forced exertions on the same day, if payment was not forthwith taken. They therefore made a further payment of 150,000 francs in late evening hours. This was, however, done with the declaration that further sums could not be paid until Cüstine had concluded an agreement on certain points necessary for the safety and relief of the city in the form of a capitulation, for which purpose municipal deputies the following day to Mainz Should be sent.

On October 27 Cüstine himself appeared at the head of 1,500 men of new troops, and with a strong artillery in Frankfurt. His unannounced arrival frightened the French garrison; For when General Marsch was beaten at his approach to the Zwung, and the troops, hurrying to the rally-market, spread among them the rumor that the Hessians and Austrians stood before the gates. Cüstine had brought a German proclamation, and had her thrown around the city. It read: "Citizens! The French Constitution has been composed and adopted by the nation only in support of the poor; It is to set the end and limits of the oppressions of the rich. I hear, citizens! That the Banquier, the great merchant, conspired with our enemies to extract the sound coin from France, and to issue erroneous assignments in it, would have paid the part of your people the portion of your arrogance Rich according to the proportion of his property. If, on the other hand, anyone who does not have at least thirty thousand florins own funds is to be free from that obligation, and if he has already paid for his money, he is to keep his money back. I have come to Germany to offer to the people the alliance of the Frankish republic, and to show the oppressors that the Franks who have been liberated have no other desire than to protect the weak and to convince the unjust treasurer of wealth that the people of their birth After being equal in rights and not created to carry the yoke of the rich. The Franks-Citizen, General of the Armies Cüstine. "

Cüstine, surrounded by his staff of ten to twelve persons, immediately set out from the red house to the Rossmarkt, where the troops stationed in the city were stationed. The citizens, on his sudden appearance, feared that the troops would be given the order to loot. That is why they equipped themselves to counter-defense; Some forty young butchers, each accompanied by his dog, joined together, and followed General Cüstine everywhere, to attack and kill him, as soon as that order was given. On his ride to the horse market, he stopped at the head guard. Here he cried to the crowds crowding him in the German language: "Have you recently seen the Emperor there?" In July 1792, an imperial crown was held at Frankfurt, and a few voices replied with Yes, and Cüstine then shouted, "Well, you Will not see any more! " In Mainz he was said to have spoken in the same manner, and the people had answered him with vivid calls. In Frankfurt he had expected an equal effect of his salutation; He was therefore disgusted when he did not. He rode with his staff to the Bockenheim gate, and led the new troops before the same to the Rossmarkt. Here he held a survey of the troops stationed in Frankfurt since October 22nd. On the other hand, the latter, because they had been on friendly terms with the inhabitants, and had blamed the events which had happened in Frankfurt, were strongly scolded and even called traitors. In fact, he had the new troops stationed immediately at the place of the old ones, and the latter had to leave the town from the Rossmarkt, in order to get to the next villages in the east of Frankfurt's quarters.

This strengthened the inhabitants in the fear that the city would be plundered. With anxious suspense, therefore, they looked forward to the further orders of Cüstine, who came from the horse market to the Romans, on which the council and the bourgeois colleges were gathered, and remained together all the following night. That anxiety, however, was unfounded, because Cüstine intended to achieve another purpose in the means of extorting money. He had been offered the conclusion of a capitulation by a deputation, which had been sent from the Syndical Seeger and two members of the bourgeois colleges (Friedrich Schmidt and Wenner), which had been sent to Mainz in the early part of October 27; But this deputation had missed him on the way. The offer to be made had consisted of paying a million francs within fourteen days, but less of the sums already paid and of the cost of the previous supplies of nature, which, on the other hand, made it obligatory to require anything further from Frankfurt and its inhabitants , As well as 24 hours after the safety of the sum, with all the troops, the city and to use the French National Convention for the reimbursement of the contribution.

This offer, which would at first have brought only a few hundred thousand francs to the Kriegskasse of Cüstine, was so small that the two million guilders, which were initially required, were so small that it could not be thought of. On the 27th of October, too, Cüstine seized a measure which would give every hope of mitigation: in the evening he sent seven of the most distinguished merchants to his home, and kept him there as hostages for the payment of the contribution. They were the Banquiers Johann Jakob Willemer, Bethmann-Hollweg and Heinrich Gontard, as well as the merchants Franz Schweizer, Joachim Elias Ehrmann, Peter Anton Brentano's son and Jsaak Michael Speyer (the latter a Jew). On the next morning, one of them, Willemer, who was a senator, and whom he had been summoned from the council chamber, was dismissed, and the merchant Joachim Heinrich Catoir was arrested instead of his. The reason for this will be the fact that Willemer was a Prussian agent, and the French Republic had at length made a great effort to subtract Prussia from the alliance with Austria, and win them over for their interests. Willemer, moreover, came out of the Senate four weeks later, because his colleagues had neither protected him from his arrest, nor had he taken a step towards his liberation. Immediately after the arrest of those seven citizens, and once again on the morning of the following day, Cüstine sent the deputy the reply that the payment of the contribution had been delayed for so long, that he now relinquished the first two million guilders ; These should be paid out in the shortest time; He himself did not need to cut or burn, "because he had the appropriate hostages; That he would not have to keep it long, for he knew his people; If the Contribution had not been paid in four hours, he would have the hostages taken to France; In addition, the city had to surrender its twenty-four-pounder.

Even a letter of imprisonment, immediately afterwards given to the general, in which the council offered two million francs, minus the cost of supplies of nature, had no success; Cüstine did not even allow the deputation to be delivered to him, and sent his Lacerian reply by his secretary: "I will not write, I will have money." The duration of the war, with the necessity of reserving it to be quartered, and with every kind of supply, was demanded, but in regard to the twenty-four-pounder, that the city, in order to preserve its neutrality, could not at all publish it Cüstine's reply to the Council's advice was that he had now learned that everything had been made worse by delay, and that he would inform them at times that if the two millions were not paid at the earliest, he would increase his demands His written reply, however, was: Only the wealthy people could meet; He would not leave the city of Frankfurt, but he hoped to give the magistrate of his own military talents such evidence that he would soon abandon the hope, and on the other hand he would have the experience that the French troops had been attacking the enemy from Frankfurt And would force them to recognize the republic; The latter did not think of conquering Germany; But she would strengthen her own peace, and teach the proud despot, who governed the German empire, the overpowerment of her own interests, of reigning the kingdom with wisdom, and of finally accepting the principles of reason and philosophy, This was the plan of war in France, and it could not be abandoned until 25 million Frenchmen had perished, and their cities and fields turned into dust and ashes; The Frankfurt magistrate should at last be allowed to drive his ridiculous imaginings, consent to the demand of the two millions, and conclude with France, even today, a mind which should not be separated by anything in the world.

One does not trust one 's own eyes when one reads this harsh and barbaric letter, in which one lacks a logical connection, which, in addition to the fact that the German emperor is regarded, reveals a complete ignorance of the German imperial body Whose phrases should cover up in a very clumsy manner what was the sole purpose of the whole proceedings. The council could no longer be deceived by this end, the extortion of a large sum of money. He therefore finally joined the inevitable: on October 28th, on the occasion of the liberation of the hostages, he had as much money as possible, and paid for it at eleven o'clock in the evening. At the same time he told General Cüstine, on 29 October, that he was only able to raise a total of two million francs (not gulden), but that he would exert all his powers to cover the rest of the first month after deduction of the costs Of natural supplies. At the same time he asked for the loss of the second million, the liberation of the hostages, the withdrawal of the troops from the city, and the future embarrassment of Frankfurt with contributions and deliveries. Cüstine, however, insisted on the two million florins, and conceded only that the second million could be paid for in one half only in six months, and then in ten months. He also allowed the deduction of the amount of deliveries made, declared the release of the hostages, and promised to use the Convent for the second million. But he did not wish to know anything more about the evacuation of the city than about the distribution of a safe guards, which ensured the same contributions and deliveries.

On the 3rd of October, on which day Cüstine returned to Mainz, and on the 31st, the delivery of one million florins was completed by various disbursements, and General Neuwinger, in consequence, On the 7th of October the hostages were free. On the 1st of November, a deputation was sent to Cüstine to bring him the prescription of the council for the second million, and at the same time to persuade him that he should also be employed by the Convent for the reimbursement of the first million, and a Salary Guardia ertheile. Cüstine fulfilled only the latter request, by issuing a letter of protection on the 2nd of November, by which all the French commanders, soldiers, and citizens were ordered to protect the persons and property of the citizens of Frankfurt, and in which he himself promised, to address the Convention to the fact that during the entire duration of the war Frankfurt would be spared with all contributions except the already imposed.

In order to keep the second million and the restitution of the first, on the 4th of November, as deputy, the Syndikus Seeger and the merchant Gottlieb Engelbach were sent to Paris, and a few days later he sent the judges (and later city scholarships) from Giinderrode, The merchant and fifty-one Peter Clemens Miiller and the merchant Joh. Heinrich Jordis. These men stayed in Paris for almost three months. They could not obtain anything because their negotiations were hardly set in motion when, on the 2nd, the French were expelled from Frankfurt by the Hessians, and immediately afterwards the inhabitants of Cüstine and the Mainz clubbers were accused of marching on many French soldiers to have. These misfortunes caused a terrible exasperation in Paris, so that, in the middle of December, the deputies of Frankfurt, in order to protect them, were to be declared prisoners, and guarded in their inns by their guardians. Yes, they even fell into a life of danger, as the mob raged in front of their inn and threatened their death. The rage was so great that it was said before this house that the city of Frankfurt had to be plundered in its re-conquest, and turned into dust and ashes. One of the Deputies (Günderrode) then wrote to a friend: "We will hope, with good confidence in providence, that it will be the city for the sake of the many righteous who unite, protect and shield it; Of this I infinitely promise more than anything that we deputies are capable of bringing back the insane and the insane, by presenting the truth, to a cheap, just human attitude. The word plundering has a charm for the common man, which he equates with the liberty of freedom, and which he thus too readily associates with, in order that he might be eaten without the strictest constraint of subordination. "The Frankfurt deputies were preferred with them from the middle of December The concessionary Gorani and the minister Roland, in the feeling of right, by word and writing, gave emphatic assistance to the city in the eyes of the convent.  On January 22, 1793, the Convent decreed that the Deeret had not been guilty of the violation of international law, which had been said to him, and that his deputies were therefore free again. They then returned to Frankfurt, where they arrived on the 29th and 30th of January.

The course of the general events, especially the storming of Frankfurt on the second of December, the subsequent suppression of the French over the Rhine, and the re-conquest of the Mainz fortress by the Prussians in 1793, put an end to the affair of Frankfurt. The city paid nothing more than the already paid one million guilders. The French had, therefore, attained only a small degree to the extent of their advance over the Rhine, the making of money. In one point, they had been particularly mistaken. They had been of the opinion that in Austrian and Prussian funds were kept in Frankfurt, and Neuwinger, who had been commissioned to collect them, had at once examined the books of several trading houses, but found nothing. This opinion, however, had not been so unfounded that Prussian funds had in fact been kept in Frankfurt a short time before. These had been deposited with the Prussian agent, Senator and Banquier Willemer, but Willemer had already brought them to safety in the beginning of October.

If we now return to the further course of what happened at the end of October in and around Frankfurt, a report on the behavior of Frankfurt is generally to be sent in advance. In November, the Mainz clubbers slammed the city; By asserting in writing and verbally, that, in order to harm the French Republic, Frankfurt would have to arrange and put assignates of the same. On the 24th of November, therefore, the magistrate announced a reward of 200 to 1,000 Reichsthaler to each of them, who would prove this sufficiently; No one, however, came forward to discuss this argument. Similarly, when the French had been expelled from Frankfurt by the Hessians on the 2nd of December, the same rumor spread that the Frankfurt citizens had murdered many defenseless Frenchmen, and Cüstine himself sent to the Convent The murder knives, which the Frankfurters should have made thousands of. Again, on the 12th of December, the magistrate issued a prize of 1000 louis d'or for the proof; But this time no one reported. The Frankfurt Council, at all events, took great prudence and prudence in the implications of the French Revolution in Germany, without ceasing to maintain the firmness which must never be given by a competent government and administration even in the most difficult circumstances. He never lost sight of his main task during the whole period of revolution, and never let himself be distracted by the threats or enticements of the moment; Indeed, it can be said with certainty that the affairs of the city have scarcely been conducted more wisely and more cautiously at any other time than at that time. The further course of the events, which is reported below, will provide further proof of this; But we can not abstain from adding a special proof, which is not directly connected with the historical events, from the March of 1792. At that time the Frankfurt bookseller, Wilhelm Fleischer, had announced a book on fine arts, on the title page of which the place and time of the publishing house were the words "Freistaat Frankfurt, 1792." The council not only had the Censor questioned but also ordered the publisher But it was also known in the 1848 Council that a political party of the city had drafted a new constitution for "the Free State of Frankfurt, Without taking into account the fact that by this designation the existence of the "free city of Frankfurt", based on a European state act, would be brought into a danger, albeit not at once Must recognize that the magistrate of 1792 acted tactically , When he at once denied the application of the latter to the constitution of his little state.

The citizens of the city acted at the same time with the same tact and understanding as the magistrate. They could not be deceived by the phrases of the French, which were used in pompous proclamations, of liberty and equality, by the attempt, at the same time made by them, to provoke the poor to the rich, and so by the loosening or dissolution of all citizens To put their happy cohabitation and the prosperity of the city on the play. To be sure, the French generals had at the same time contributed to the fact that the Frankfurts had not been misled by occupying a neutral city and making their first appearance felt by demanding an account of two million guilders. When, afterwards, a violent speech against Frankfurt was held in the Freiheits-Klubb at Mainz, and this city was blamed for making erroneous assignments, and because of its opposition to Cüstine's suspicions, a simple Frankfurter Meistermeister (John Philip Auerbach was on 23 November) Name), who had attended the Klubb session, had a reply bearing the name of his speech. He acknowledged the French doctrine of the equality of all men and of their equal claims to liberty and protection; But he considered it unjust to complain of the wealth acquired and the enjoyment of envy, a city which, on account of the fact that in its free constitution so far it had been happy, would not allow any change to it, and to accuse its citizens of it That they loved the habitual authority, and would remain faithful to it. 

On the 5th of November, all the master craftsmen of Frankfurt (the locksmith and bookbinder) had signed a letter addressed to Cüstine, and sent it to him, which contained the statement that Frankfurt's citizens were not, as he said, oppressed and subjected to blackmail From fellow citizens, one-third of magistrates were craftsmen, the members of the authority gave regular account of the financial situation of the citizenry, bore the common burdens and had no privileges, the neighbors in Frankfurt would never have formed a special class that was poor By public foundations as well as by a great private charity against Noth, that the taxes were very slight; the general prosperity in Frankfurt was conditioned by his happy constitution and by the prosperity of the richer fellow-citizens; General Cüstine, after declaring himself a protector of freedom and public welfare, would be contrary to his own principles if he did not allow the Frankfurters to remain in their constitution, and would not relinquish any claim on contributions. "We would not know, as the conclusion of the treatise is, with which we might be more vividly exposed to the Frankish republic than by the sincere desire that it may be as happy with its new constitution as we have hitherto shown Who was our own. "This letter was rightly hailed by the Frankfurt craftsmen as a deserving chastisement for the Jacobin hypocrisy of the French proletarians, of the love of justice of the French, of their sympathy for the poor working citizen, and of the pressure which the rich Had already been practiced, the same as the citizens of Frankfurt, the Hessians accepted the sweetish proclamations of Cüstine , which had been addressed to them, and as early as October 28 Cüstine had issued such a declaration to the Hessian-Casselian soldiers He called his landgrave a monster and a tiger, over which the curse of the tears of the widows, whom he had brought together by the sale of Sol, without data, and the lamentation of the orphans which he had made miserable, like black storm-clouds. In this proclamation, he had at the same time offered a happy fortune to the Hessian soldiers, if they were to serve the French nation, a daily wage of fifteen cruisers, but if they were not prepared for a pension of 45 florins, as well as citizenship, Brotherly love and freedom. We shall see below how the Hessian soldiers replied to the General Cüstine by deeds; Here only so much that, four days after the proclamation had been issued in Frankfurt, a leaflet circulated, which from the Hessian camp near Hanau dated the general: he led his hungry Frenchmen to the broadside of the peaceful neighbors, Were more free in their constitution than in France, the unjust incitement of arson, and in vain sought the Hessians

Against the land of the prince of Hesse-Cassel, who had indeed invaded France, the French immediately directed their arms. Four days after the occupation of Frankfort, 15-1800 Frenchmen had broken into Hessian under Houchard's leadership. They made a robbery after the saline Nauheim, which was six hours from Frankfurt, in the same place, under the captain Mondorf, who had been sent there to guide the salt stores to be transported to Hanau. These, indeed, were not able to defend the saline against the enemy's power; But, although they had neither a cannon nor a cavalry, they rejected the invitation to surrender, went up to the adjoining Johannis-Berg, and here attacked twice, and resisted so long as the last cartridge had been overthrown, surrounded by Cavalleric. They were taken prisoner to Frankfort, and Cüstine had their triumph passed through half the city. The Frankfurters brought them money and refreshments. In vain did they try to persuade the prisoners to go into French service. When the chief of the Klubbist tribe, Cüstine's adjutant, offered a kiss to one of the prisoners, the latter replied, "Stay away from me, we are Hesse, and remain Hesse." Only when the Hessians are all together, you are all lost, for they are not a pawn-soldiers like the Mainzers. " The Commons of the prisoners were taken to Mainz, but the officers were dismissed in honor. The booty, consisting of many chariots of salt, had Cüstine Main brought down.

From Nauheim, Houchard first turned against the nearby Wetterau monasteries Rockenburg, Arnsburg, Jlbenstadt and Engelthal, to plunder these also. He robbed them of their livestock, made a contribution to them, and had two nuns, two monks, and one official to be brought to Frankfurt as hostages. Then he directed his robbery against the Nassau lands. Small corps of the Hesse and Prussians, indeed, deprived him of the way; But they had to retreat before the enemy's enemies, and these invaded Weilburg on the 10th of November, as well as on the 13th in Jdstein. They raised a contribution of several hundred thousand florins in both towns, and robbed the princely horses, as well as the food they had available. The Prussians and Hesse, who had returned from France, had, however, advanced far afield with their troops on the Rhine, and the French were soon obliged to repent.

Custine, who at that time had obtained considerable reinforcements, afterwards placed the greater part of his troops in and at Höchst, where he himself was quartered at Bolongaro's house, behind the Nidda, and leaned on the left on the formerly occupied Taunus, as well as on the town of Ober-Ursel at the foot of this mountain range, which is surrounded by hills. In Frankfurt he left only 1500 men infantry, 50 cavalry men, and no more than two three-footed men under General van Helden. Toward the end of the Nove.mber, a considerable number of Prussian and Hessian-Cassel troops gathered in the east and north of Frankfurt; They were set up in a semicircle extending from Reifenberg via Nieder-Erlenbach to Vilbel, where the latter place had been occupied by intestine troops. On the 28th of November the Prussians withdrew from Bockenheim, a distance of half an hour from Frankfurt, and occupied on the other side the Friedberger Wartthurm, as far away as the village, and the village of Bornheim. At the dawn of the night, General Kalkreuth sent a Prussian officer to Frankfort to order van Helden to surrender the city. This officer, who was admitted by the Eschenheimer Thor, and was taken to the Quartier van Helden (the red house), gave the inhabitants a joyous excitement because his appearance indicated the imminent liberation. Many people followed him with vivid calls. Van Helden rejected the request. Soon afterwards he had to listen to the music of the Prussian drummers and whistlers, who were approaching the Thor. On the other hand the mood of the inhabitants had been announced the day before. The youth of the school had screamed loudly through the streets to testify to their joy at the imminent departure of the French, so that next day the council ordered the public teachers to prohibit their pupils from such inappropriate and dangerous expressions. At the same time, the magistrate ordered citizens' patrols to circumnavigate the city at night, in order to preserve peace and prevent inconsistencies.

On the 29th of November, at eight o'clock in the morning, a serious conflict of the inhabitants threatened to break out with the French occupation. The rumor spread that van Helden, in vain, had demanded munitions from the municipal authorities, and therefore ordered his soldiers to be fired with force from the train station at Rahmhof. On this rumor many people hurried to the court, but not with weapons, but with beatings. The people gathered together in front of the gate of the court, which the French sought to break out with axes. " Already one began to become acquainted with the soldiers, an officer was thrown to the ground, another was taken, and carried on the head-guard stationed by Frankfurter soldiers; The magistrates, as well as respected citizens, urged and warned, and they succeeded in appeasing the bitter men, especially as a contrived adjutant of Van Helden assured him that he did not demand the guns, that the matter depended on a misunderstanding that the soldiers were Only sent to pick up the meat for the garrison lying in the forecourt of the Zeughaus. A renewed attempt to take possession of the cannons necessary to the French, could not be dared in the mood of the citizenship, and in the proximity of a superior hostile army; He would have compelled the weak garrison to a simultaneous struggle in the internal and outward.

On the same day Cüstine appeared in Frankfurt even in the evening. He immediately went to the Romans, followed by many inhabitants, who had made his arrival anxious again because of the municipal cannons. The ever-increasing crowd was waiting for the Romans in expectancy. After only half an hour Cüstine returned to the street; The two mayors accompanied him, and the cheerful countenance of the more eager showed the people that he was not doing anything bad. Cüstine immediately mounted his horse and rode back to Höchst. After his departure, the magistrate ordered the printed copies of the contents to be printed from house to house: General Cüstine had appeared in no other way than to assure the magistrate that if he were to be compelled to battle at Frankfort, Could be completely reassured by a cannon and a siege; The magistrate, therefore, exhorts all the more the inhabitants to remain calm, and to guard against a dangerous or even dangerous curiosity in the event of a struggle by the troops.

Cüstine was at that time in an awkward position; On November 29 he reported to his minister of war that he could not hold Frankfurt against the superiority of the enemy who had been drawn up, because the necessary reinforcements had been left behind; There would be nothing left for him but to go to Main; withdraw. And yet he left in Frankfurt only 1500 (according to other news 2,500) with only two guns, which number of troops could not defend the city against the already existing proximity. It had not even been taken care of, that the somewhat ruined walls of the city had been patched up, and that the trenches before them were cleansed (they were 96 feet across the Rhine). On the last day before the storm they had undertaken, the pedestrian gates of the town gates were left open from morning to night, when the enemies were drawn near, and allowed everyone to go out and go. This was used by the inhabitants, especially by the tradesmen who were very fierce against the French, to visit the German troops in front of the city, and to make useful communications to them, as well as to make arrangements with them. In fact, before a storm attack on Frankfurt was made on the 2nd of December, the Germans had to report to the Germans about the garrison and about the mood prevailing in the city, as well as between them and the inhabitants, appointments upon which, upon their appearance an insurrection would break out and the gates should be opened. According to the judgment of war-soldiers Custine would have drawn the weak garrison out of the city, and had to take his chief command, which, by the Nidda and by entrenchments, stood a few hours from Frankfurt. On the other hand, the Prussian war leaders were also accused of failing to attack the city of Frankfurt with the loss of so many Hessian soldiers, but to attack the French at Höchst, and not in the numerical and tactical superiority of the German army, and in the incapacity of Cüstine Was difficult to overcome, which would have compelled the garrison to voluntary resignation in Frankfurt to be forced. The entirety of the German army is given as 30 to 34,090 men, while Cüstine had a maximum of 18 to 29,900 men at Höchst, and 4,000 men in Upper Ursel. He might have retreated to the Rhine without a sword.

It was decided at the Prussian headquarters. On December 2, a storm attack on Frankfurt. While the division of the troops, which had been entrenched at Ober-Ursel, under Houchard, as well as the chief army of the French under Custine at Höchst, and other troops were set up side by side as far as Vilbel, the corps of Kassel, , To which Hesse had been attached by the Prussian cavalry and Prussian cavalry, were to carry out the assault of Frankfort under the supremacy of the Prussian Oberstlucutenant von Ruchel. This was to take place at four points: a part of the river was to be crossed over the River Main in the course of the night, and a second column on hidden ships drove down the main river, landed at the Frankfurter Metzgerhor, and then passed through the city to the two eastern gates Which were the main points of attack. These Thorc were the Friedberger or New Thor and the Hanauer or Aller, holy-Thor. Both were to be attacked by a column of Hesse, and these were supported by a Prussian heavy battery. All four columns were to begin the attack at seven o'clock in the morning. To the struggle itself, afterwards, the two columns, determined against the above-mentioned gates, came almost exclusively; For the detachment directed against Saxony, which was to make only an illusion, took possession of the place with little trouble, and the column descending on the Main was so much disturbed by the wind that it was only after the storm was completed. Of the columns against the Friedberger and Hanauer Thor, those who attacked the Craster had to lead the main canal; It was commanded by General Major von Wurmb.

The 2nd December, the day of storming, was the first Sunday of Advent. He began with a thick fog, which could be conducive to the Germans' plans, because he concealed the French from their enemies, especially since they had no knowledge of the intention of the latter, and could be attacked without precaution. The Hessians stood before five o'clock at the assigned office run of the Bornheimer Haide and at the Friedberger Warte). On the other hand, the Prussians, on account of an unforeseen obstacle, did not reach the Friedberger Warte until seven o'clock, and the King himself, with his entourage, to which several beautiful Amazons were said, even at eight o'clock. At that time, the fog, so conducive to attacking, had already vanished. At half past nine, when the bells of the Frankfurters were ringing at the beginning of the service, the Hessian columns, ordered by the storming of the town gates, broke out. At the instigation of the Duke of Brunswick, which was averse to the whole enterprise, they were, however, soon resumed, and it was only when the Oberstleutenant von Rüschel, who had been instructed with the skirmish, had made urgent proposals to the king. In this way it was nine o'clock, when the Hessians reached Frankfurt and began their work.

When they arrived in front of the Friedberger Gate, their astonishment, as careless and sloppy as the French were, drove a loaded carriage out of the open gate. At once the vanguard-forming garbs burst into the air, and they reached the drains, which had just been closed, behind which the French had just closed the doors. Here they were received by the fire of the French, and the echo of the shots sounding in the arch of the door made their horses shy, so that they retreated, and now the Franzoufffs quickly reopened the drawbridge before the ever-following Hessian hunters had arrived were. The latter threw themselves into the gardens on either side of the highway, and opened a lively fire, covered with walls, hedges, and buildings. Apart from them, however, the grenadier battalion commanded by Prince Charles of Hesse-Philippsthal, to whom the reputation of the open door had penetrated, also advanced in hurry up to the edge of the moat, and the brave prince retreated as the gate Closed, did not return immediately. This led to the rapid succession of the successive principal colony of the rumor, which had also penetrated to it, for the true, and up to, the battalion, whose standstill was explained by the stay which led to the penetration into the narrow gateway. Thus it happened that more than two thousand men were squeezed together between the high garden walls and exposed to the persisting fire of the enemies, who in turn were behind the brigade of the Wall and the shooting ranges of the Thorthurm, and only had to shoot blindly into the mass of their opponents, To be certain of the effect of their shots. Although the Hessian hunters, from their covered position, as well as the battalion of the Prince and the rest of the Storm Colonel, heroically endured the murderous fire of the enemy and returned to power, they could but little damage the protected Franzofen. After half an hour, when most of the ammunition had been fired, almost a sixth of the prince's battalion, which had the most dangerous position, lay dead or wounded; the chiefs of Wolff and von Münchhausen were fatal to the dead He wounded the Prince himself, and the Major of Donnop, the chief of Desclaires, and the lieutenant of Rademacher. At last the order was given that the battalion should be like the hunters behind the hedges and walls of the side gardens, but the rest of the troops were to march back to gain place for the erection of guns by which they hoped to destroy drawbridge and gate. This withdrawal caused some confusion, as there were other troops behind the highway, especially in the battalion of Colonel von Beuning, which occupied almost the whole of the road. Then the Colonel cried thunderously to his kent: "Guys, would you stand still? The first one, who is walking a foot from the place, I run the sword through the egg. "Immediately they all stood motionless, despite the rain of bullets, which now also sank to their ranks." Sank a man in the first limb The son of the ensign of this body-dead or wounded on the ground, immediately his rear man, with a sharply-shouldered rifle, took his place, nothing moved in the whole battalion as the white flag-flag, no sound was heard; The dull sighs of those who had been killed. "

In the meantime the Prussian guns, which had been placed on the Friedberger Landstrasse for a quarter of an hour from the town hall, had not been able to bombard the town gate from this position, had thrown some bullets into the town to stimulate the inhabitants to more active assistance. On the other hand, after the courageous Benuing battalion had been withdrawn a long distance, two guns appeared, which at once opened a lively, though almost ineffective, fire against the drawn-out drawbridge of the Friedberger Tor; But the crew of the guns suffered so much from the rifle fighters that they had to be supplemented several times. Up to that time nothing had been achieved, despite the bravery of the Hessians; For the Colonel, who had been charged with the storming of the Hanauer Gate, had unsuccessfully shot down this gate, and had a gun-fire with the Frenchmen on the ramparts. At last, however, there was encouraging aid from the city.

The whole population of Frankfurt hated the French, and looked with longing for the liberation from them. Ties were especially the case among the thousands of craftsmen who were employed as companions in the town, especially in the Prussian, Hessian, and other North Germans. All these craftsmen, from the carpentry and locksmiths to the bakers, tailors, wiggle makers, s. From the moment when the German troops came forward, were determined to assist the latter in every way. They had arranged to cross the French garrison and open the gate, and to open the doors of the French garrison and to open the doors of the French garrison, and that every free time, especially the Friday before, on which the celebration of the day of repentance and prayer had been held, The Germans who had been stationed in the area, had also said that such an aid would be granted. They were speaking on the second of December. As soon as the first shots were heard, and the citizens gathered in the churches returned home, the craftsmen, some of them armed with sticks and axes, gathered on the line, and were not, in spite of the admonition of the magistrates who were in attendance Move also to return home c. They increased their hate against the French, by shouting to each other that Cüstine was a traitor, that he had promised not to expel the city of any bombardment, and that, on the appearance of the Germans, he would withdraw his troops without resistance from the city, Not. The zeil was soon filled with crowds of craftsmen, and the French reserve, which had been set there, so terrified that several shells were thrown against it, the greatest part of which ran wildly along the westward Bockenheimer Thor Guard with himself, ran out to the city. Now the craftsmen hurried to the Friedberger, partly to the Hanauer Thor. The boldest of them arrived at both gates about a quarter of an hour before ten o'clock, and sought to overthrow the guards.

General van Helden, who commanded himself in the city, who was more friendly than Cüstine, and had won the respect of the citizens, had been determined, at the approach of the Hessians, to redeem the word pledged by the former. He had, therefore, sent a trumpeter at once to the Friedberger Thor to offer the surrender of the town, and when the latter had not been hindered by the officers of the Thorwache, van Helden had promised the older mayor to send an urban charge Trumpeters. At the same time, the city trumpeter smoke had been sent to him on horseback. The latter, then, with the order to offer the capitulation to the enemy, rode to the Hanauer Gate, while van Helden himself, with an officer, went to the Friedberg gate, but soon turned back again, because his trumpeter, who rode twice on the drawbridge, Blew, was not heard because of the strong shooting. At the sanctuary, the watchful officer did not let the city trumpeter out, and when the latter began to blow within the gate, the former directed his pistol upon him. At this moment the craftsmen arrived at the gate, snatched the pistol from the officer, overpowered the guard, smashed the gate, cut the drawbridge, and thus secured the entrance to the Hessian column. Ties happened at ten o'clock, and in almost the same way, and at the same time at the Friedberger Thor. The French immediately took flight from the invading Hesse. With shouts and hats-swinging, the craftsmen received their German countrymen, who, under a drumbeat with wild Victoria screams and with the cry: "Death to Custinus!" Custinus is to die, as well as with the old-fashioned soldiers' call.*

*) This call, which was also presented at the Knabenensen in Kurhessen War, culture. 15

The first ones who arrived at Friedberger Thor were the Major von Offenbach, the lieutenants of Kochhausen and von Dornberg, and the Fähndrich of Ditfurth. The first of these was the Lieutenant von Selchow, and the Appelius, the latter, who immediately swung the flag from the breast-house, in order to signal to the battalions standing outside that the entrance was forced. From the stormed gates, the victors followed partly the French fleeing to the Bockenheimer Gate, partly climbing the walls to the right and left, and cleaning them from the enemy.

Even before the Hessian invasion, General van Helden, returning from the Friedberg Gate to the Zeil, had sent both the only two cannons at his disposal, as well as about a hundred men, to the Thor. The craftsmen had, however, also been able to drive this assistance. When both letters had reached the elephant to the Vilbelergasse, they were met by a large group of craftsmen. The Officers, who led the Line Troops, did not believe they could overpower them, and, in spite of the murmurs of his subordinates, commanded the soldiers to stop; The troops remained inactive, until they saw themselves forced to flee when the Hessians entered. At the two guns, the craftsmen ripped out the lances of the wheels, then turned the guns and drove them to the shepherd's gauntlet, where the wheels fell out and the guns stopped.

Meanwhile, the Hesse has entered the city, apparently means as much as: storms on it; For it can only be derived from Schuer (Schauer), which, as in the expression "Regenschauer", meant a storm and a thunderstorm. In Kurhessen, too, grinding on the ice is called Schurren.

And persecuted the fleeing Frenchmen, who in part drove away their rifles and packs, and in part, though their cause was lost, repelled every pardon, and resisted the death of captivity. It was also the case that in the agony which the soldiers used to take during the storming of a city, Hesse did not give a pardon at first, and massacred the French, pleading for mercy. These cases, however, were only isolated; In general, the Hessians were mildly behaved, as the circumstance shows, that no more than seven wounded and ten wounded Frenchmen were found in the streets of the city. On the ramparts on which the resistance was more obstinate, 34 Frenchmen were killed and 129 wounded. Not a few citizens accepted the fleeing Frenchmen against the Hessians, leading them into their houses, and not delivering them until the afternoon as prisoners. Many Frenchmen even escaped from the city. This happiness was, For instance, a wounded officer who begged for mercy and saved the baker-master Rahnftadt, as well as two Franzofen, who had been quartered at Becker's Becker, who, in civil dresses, led him out to a town gate. Even one of the so much embittered craftsmen, a chamberlain from Mecklenburg, kept a Frenchman in his room for two days, and then, with the aid of his own pass, brought him safely out of the city. In addition, several craftsmen were wounded in the streets. The wounded Frenchmen were immediately brought to Lazarethe. In the city, most of them were at Bockenheimer and Mainzer Thor, where the main stream of the fleeing turned; Others were found at the two stormed city gates, at the head guard, at the Theater Square, and on the Main Bridge.

Some also lay at the monkey and the Schaumainthor at Sachfenhausen, in which place several hundred Frenchmen had been placed. Several of the houses of the city had been harmed by cannon balls, and three times there had been fire; At the house, which had been the most visited, the damage amounted to 5000 florins.

On the part of the Hessians, seven officers and 75 congregations remained dead, and eleven officers, along with 93 commanders, were mostly severely wounded; Their total loss thus existed in 18 officers and 168 commons. Several of the wounded Hessians had not been able to move from fighting, but, after having been temporarily joined, they returned to their place, and continued with them until they died. These included, among others, A. the Major of Donnop, who had been severely wounded at the commencement of the storm, but the leadership of his battalion continued, and only when he received the third fatal wound did the commander dismiss. Even the chief of the storm, Colonel Nuchel, sank, exhausted from the horse, when he arrived with the troops on the line.

The inhabitants of Frankfurt, from the windows of the houses, greeted the invading Hesse with loud rejoicing, and waved white towels for the welcome. Yes, some women of the upper classes could not abstain from embracing the first best of them, officer or soldier, in their joy. Afterwards all kinds of food and drink were dragged along to refresh the fatigued warriors, and as one of the soldiers said thirty years later, the heart, kissing, and hand-pressing was no end. At the same time, the wounded enemies were at the same time humanly friendly. The inhabitants, with the exception of the craftsmen, had not taken part in the struggle. An interrogation, which the magistracy on the 21st of December, at the time, had kept in the hospitals of the French, and whose minutes contain the names of the latter, as well as their statements on the authors of their injuries, showed that only three of them were not affected by Hessian Soldiers had been wounded; One of these three added, however, that when he had sought to save himself with about 50 comrades on the Main, Craftsmen had thrown stones upon them, and had also shot them among them, whereby about seven of them would have been wounded. Yet Cüstine wrote to the Convent in Paris that on the 2nd of December, the Frankfurters had massacred not less than 300 Frenchmen; Yes, he even sent one of these murder knives, and wrote that nearly 10,000 people had armed themselves in the city with such knives.

A quarter of an hour after the capture, the King of Prussia rode with his entourage. He soon, however, returned to the troops which the fleeing Frenchmen pursued. At the Bockenheimer and the gallows, where Cüstine had advanced eight hundred thousand men under Ncuwinger from Höchst, the fugitives set out again; Indeed, they even turned again against the city, and came near to the Bockenheimer Thor. Here a part of them was cut down or taken prisoner by the Hessian cavalry; And when the troops and guns of the German main army were approaching, the Franzofen retreated to Höchst via Bockenheim and Roedelheim. At the same time, the French in Upper-Ursel were expelled. On the following day Cüstine also gave up his position at Höchst, and retreated to Hochheim. From here, the French were soon driven over the Rhine, and only their occupation, which was situated in the fortress of the king, continued until March 1793.

On the 2nd of December, the French had lost 41 men in the city, who remained dead, and 139, who were severely wounded, and one and fifty-eight men as prisoners. Her 41 dead were buried on the Bornheimer Haide, along with 19 Frenchmen who had died in the hospitals, and an official certificate of the sonship of Bornheim is contained in the archives. Among the prisoners were 44 officers, together with the commanding General van Helden. The latter would almost have been a victim of exasperation, which the Hessians entertained against his chief general Cüstine. The latter hated this because he had publicly called their landgrave a monster and a tiger. Several had his death. And when, on their arrival into the city, they heard the erroneous rumor that he was at Frankfurt in the apartment of Heroes, a Hessian soldier, who saw the latter standing at the window, and holding him as Cüstine, put on his gun, But a resident turned to the side, before the shot went off. Several other soldiers wanted to penetrate into that dwelling in order to kill the alleged Cüstine, but were deterred by officers.

The King of Prussia granted honorable rewards to both the heroic Hessian soldiers as well as the craftsmen who had facilitated their task. He gave money to those of the latter who had been most distinguished, and about twenty of them were given twelve or sixteen Louis d'Or. Three of the craftsmen from Bremen, Mecklenburg, and Heilbronn were also sent a letter of recommendation which, in the name of the King of Prussia and of the Landgrave of Hesse, recommended them all to friendly reception and promotion, and granted them the right to live in every Prussian and Hessian place to be allowed to settle.

The Hessian troops were particularly honored by the grateful King. On the 2nd of December he held a survey of the storm columns, expressed his gratitude and admiration, and told them among others that he believed he had dreamed and did not attend a bloody storm, but a Potsdam maneuver. As a sign of his sentiments, he paid a storm of half a florin to every man of the garde regiments, as well as to the battalion of Hesse-Philippsthal, and declared the Hessians free from all service for 24 hours; Three invading Prussian battalions, instead of their guards, had to look after the guards. The Landgraf also granted the corps a gift of one florin for every officer and half a florin for every common. He also provided double invalidity to the invalids, widows and orphans of the fallen. The King also offered numerous donations for both classes. Numerous promotions and orders were issued.

Finally, in 1793, the King had already erected a memorial to the fallen Hessians, which, by the court architect, Langhanß in Berlin, but designed by the brother of the famous Minister von Stein, belongs to the most beautiful monuments of the latest period A special interest is aroused, because it is the only monument ever erected by Hesse-Kasselian armed forces. It stands directly in front of the Friedberger Thor, the place where the main battle had been and most of the Hessians had fallen. Its base is a rock group built of Hessian basalt pieces; From which rises a 10-foot-high and broad cube of German marble, on the top of which a stormy or rampant head, a lion's skin covering it, a colossal helmet, a shield, and a herculean club are poured out of the ore of conquered guns, besinden. On the sides of the marble cube four bronze tablets are inserted. One of them indicates the year and the day of the storm. The second contains the inscription: "Frederick William II King of Prussia, the noble Hessians, who fell victoriously in the struggle for the Fatherland." On the third are the words: "The companion of laborious enterprises of the Hessian war-spirits, who, during the conquest of Frankfurt Died on December 2, 1792, of a glorious death, ordered this monument to be erected a witness of her courage, an admirer of her fortitude, Frederick William II King of Prussia, 1793. " The fourth table, under the heading, "Here the deaths of the heroes died," the names of the fifty-five fallen at this place, namely: "Colonel-Prince Charles of Hesse-Philippsthal, Major CD of Tonnop, Captain C. v.Wolf, D , Wissner, Orth, Wax, Vaupel, friend, Kersting, Common Franke, Nennstiel, Döllet, Miiller, Lapp, and others, Horn, Horn, Karges, Steissel, Vogt, Pike, Knotte, Kohler, Wagner, Knipp, Giebert, Meil, Duke, Thöne, Wish, Zwick, Werbe, Hildebrand, Schill, Burger, Colmar, Gerlach, Hassenpflug, Franke, Jtter, Gerst, Sick, Benderoth, Noll, Dcichmüller, Schlingenstein, Aßmann, Görike. " The production of the monument is said to have cost 22,000 guilders. In 1844, King Frederick William IV had this restored.

It would also be incomprehensible if one had not brought his body into the princely family tomb, but had it buried at the Frankfurt cemetery. And yet, in the last twenty years, the legend had been that the latter had happened; One even showed a grave from the cemetery, which was spent on the fine. This tomb is covered with a stone on which an obelisk has been cut out in relief; The latter had an inscription of metal letters, but these had all disappeared early. On the other hand, there is a relief under the obelisk, carved from the stone, representing military emblems, a helmet with a laurel wreath, a sword, a warp, an old Roman standard shield, a bundle of fasces, and a Prussian eagle escutcheon. The latter emblem proves that the tombstone was to mark the retirement of a Prussian officer, not a Hessian officer; For although the prussian Charles of Hesse, Philippsthal, was given the Prussian large red eagle-order before his end, the coat of arms can not be named, but the order would have been indicated by a cross and a ribbon. The grave in question contains the body of a Prussian military, and indeed men who once read the metal inscription say that the bones of a Prussian colonel rested here, who, on the other side of the Rhine, were severely wounded in battle with the French Has been; Two men of a reliable character, who had often read the inscription, even told me that they were able to contend that this was the wording of the inscription. The condemnation is consequently nothing but a saga. However, it has been immortalized three years ago. In 1870, two Hessian princes restored the supposed tomb of their heroic relatives, and they were given a new inscription which states that this was the grave of Prince Charles, who died on the 2nd of January, 1793, seriously wounded Hesse Philippsthal. So we have a new example of how legends form and become history.

The most interesting event is a hitherto unknown trial, which was connected with the events of the 2nd December, and which was conducted between the Cabinet of the Prussian King and the Magistrate of Frankfurt. On the so-called "Fischerfelde", which was then only equipped with few houses, a French magazine had been found, guarded by some forty Frenchmen with an officer. Immediately after the beginning of the storm, a small Corps of the Civil Defense had been sent to Loen for this magazine in order to prevent it from being lit; But the crew had had to turn back again, because the French guards did not allow them, and even threatened to give them fire. At the same time many inhabitants had gathered on the nearby Wollgraben. Among them was Reuss, a 25-year-old industrialist, who had armed himself with his rifle, as well as with a saber and a cartridge. He urged his fellow citizens to also take the rifles to fight against the French. No one followed him, but all exhorted him not to participate in the struggle, which the magistrate had forbidden all the citizens a few days before. Reus, however, could not be appeased in his patriotic zeal. Soon after, those forty Frenchmen learned that the Hessians had entered the city; So that they were not to be cut off, they resolved to save themselves quickly from the bridge of the Main, and in three sections they first moved to the Wollgraben. Here the assembled citizens presented themselves to them, and denied them the long march. In vain did the officer ask her to leave, saying: "Rear-foe, o, o! But not even the enemy of his own? "His petition did not make any difference, as a matter of fact the people threw stones at the French, and the officer, with his hat removed, urged him to let him go, and at the same time ordered his soldiers to throw away their weapons Did not help: the men went on to throw stones with stones, and shotguns fell upon them. Three Frenchmen were wounded, one of whom was a bullet through his two knees, and he was immediately transferred to a hospital. According to the testimony of the witnesses, Rens, who had done the shot on the latter, was Rens.

When the magistrate had afterwards made an investigation into what had happened in the city on the 2nd of December, Rcus was also involved in the same, and was imprisoned in January 1793. The investigation of him was made more difficult by the fact that the wounded Frenchman was no longer to be found; He was probably killed in the hospital soon after his wound, and then buried with other deceased without his name. On the other hand, several citizens had claimed that he had been wounded by a shot of Reus, and they agreed to summon their statement; Reus himself denied this stubbornly and assuredly that he had shot the air, but in doing so partly contradicted himself. On the 28th of February the investigation was concluded, and Reus was asked to appoint a legal defender; For, because he was urgently suspected of fighting against the barbaric prohibition of an active participation in the fighting, and, in so doing, shooting at defenseless soldiers, his affair was dealt with criminally.

This matter gave rise to a diplomatic negotiation already in February 1793, the files of which are interesting enough to be communicated here. On the 12th of February, the Prussian colonel of Manstein issued the following letter to the elderly mayor, Johann Christoph von Lauterbach: "Blessed gentleman, in particular, Mayor! S- Änigl. Majesty of Prussia is informed that a Frankfurt citizen named Rei had been arrested from the cause, and was still in prison because he had shot and wounded a Frenchman on the day of the Reoccupation of this city. If we were to take the view that in the action of the imagined citizen, and in his judgment, he would have to look at his real intention of showing his patriotism, if he had at once given up his zeal, or exceeded his authority And, therefore, his liberation, the more so would the wish that the destruction of an enemy of the empire, for which the Frenchman is acknowledged, stand out of proportion with the ruin of a citizen: so I have to make known to your Majesties your welfare And to the dismissal of the Fang gantz, to give me the honor, but at the same time to ask for some agreeable news, Embarrassing interrogation office. I am always with the highest respect, Cur Wohlgebohren, most courageous servant Manstein. "

The Mayor presented this intercession to the magistrate, who on the 16th of February sent to General Manstein the following: "The urgent need of a high-spirited council, to the utmost desire. Prussian Majesty in all respects, as far as he is concerned, he is in no way in the present case unable to satisfy the principle which can be changed for him. Since it was quite outside the sphere of the profession of the Fang to attack the French who had been present here, as this was strictly forbidden to all local citizens, and, as the investigation reveals, the negligence of the neighbors against their intentions Has been warned of the most urgent, the undertaking accused of it is in no way a patriotic undertaking, but belongs to the class of those offenses, upon which, upon examination, the utterance of the laws, which might be easily frustrated by the release of the offense , must decide.

Three days later, the council decided to accelerate the investigation as far as possible, and, on completion of the sentence, not to do it by itself, but by a German jurist-faculty, that is, by impartial parties, Why Reus could not be discharged at the time. The latter happened immediately by the following written argument:

1)      "Especially during the time when this city was occupied by French troops, to expel its citizens and members of the Jurisdiction from all possible activities in various ways, and to make it comprehensible to them that actions, by which local inhabitants had a very special hatred and hatred Would be of little use to the war against the French nation, and they would have to remain necessary to the supreme warring powers, with the welfare of the imperial city, and with the special purpose of it, Which may be preserved by the ideas of the National Convention.
2)      These exhortations were not without effect, but the local citizens and dwellers, both during the whole period of their stay in French troops, and especially in the second decree of the previous year, as the day of reoccupation The imperial city of the Combined Kings. Prussian, and Fuhrer Hessian troops, were really so dazed that they were not to be feared and suspected that other persons would make a deal out of it, the conduct of the Frankfurt citizens against the French on the second day of December. Year on the most harsh Sem.
3)      3. When, however, this happens, when not only the Maynazers and other newspapers, but even the report of General Cüstine to the National Convention, impose a conspiracy and treason on the Frankfurters, and even presumably premeditated murders , The magistrate had no choice but to make the most exact official examination against those who were on this day against the Emperor The French, contrary to all suppositions, had in fact departed, so as to be able to take the necessary punishment and responsibility, and to assure both General Cüstine, as well as the National Convention, of the respected writings and memoirs in public printing.
4)      In these investigations, to the greatest satisfaction of a noble council, the obscurity of those deliberations has been fulfilled. It was only against the two-and-a-half-year-old scherenschleifer, Ludwig Carl Reus, that several prosecutors, who were not to be reproved, accused him, and on the second of December last year against the exhortations of his fellow-citizens And the Commando, who had stood on the so-called Fischerfeld, at the French magazine, had been obliged to take flight over the Wollgraben, and, with the rifle entrusted to him to a very different end in his burghering, presented himself to the imagined fleeing command To the fleeing French as other local citizens, or even to the deed himself, had shot a Frenchman in the legs, so that he must at once have collapsed, and must subsequently be brought into the hospital.
5)      The consummation of the witnesses who had been heard of this incident, and who were still to be appointed by the law, and the inadequate punishment of the deed, and the impotence of the accused, were sufficient to present his pretended innocence sufficiently So much as the Reus, at the beginning of the month of Jenner The Lorpus atelieti, by the discovery of the wounded French, the interrogation and the legal investigation of the wound received, and especially whether the latter was fatal But, on the other hand, the rights in such cases require capture, anyway, on persons of slight condition, and who have the suspicion of flight.
6)      Though, until now, all the efforts which have been made to make known to the injured have been in vain; consequently, and as soon as the details of this are not forthcoming, the most important degree of the conquest of the valley, and chiefly the impossibility, is a sure judgment That it should never be allowed to be punishable by punishment, but only a poen-arbitrai.i, can not, however, be so, as the man is, has nothing in bombs But always only a physical one, since far from being able to qualify for the cause of redemption in the sense which is to be granted to him, and at the expense of the Acrarii, can be judged by the judicial office as the prisoner of the confinement without a single Derogation from the statutes of the legal administration and the magistrate's office , not dismissed.
7)      Since the immediately after December 2 before. Year-olds, who had been deceived by the very successes of the most careful investigations of the various incidents of this day, had to take proofs of their rational and non-hostile conduct against the French occupation at that time, since those who were not concerned with the presentation of innocence But only in order to make them more conspicuous with the whole French nation, with which the citizens of the city of the empire stand in so many and varied conditions of action, will be more inclined, in any case, to the magisterium in the examinations, wherever it may be It would be possible to reduce the number of reproaches, and the desire that all citizens and members of the family should not be found guilty of any punishable behavior May be infallibly overwhelmed if, in this single fold, since the investigations which have been carried out on this day are a local citizen, even the smallest class, as punishable, he is at least still a criminal offense Time, from the legal requirements. It is, therefore, easy to take the opportunity to doubt the intentions and efforts of a Noble Council to punish the culprits and to punish them according to their merit, and thereby try to counteract the refutations of the misfortunes which have been exhausted.
8)      It is true that in this particular case a higher council of nobles would not only be offended against the duty of lawfully investigating and punishing forgiveness by law, but if the latter wanted to dismiss the incarcerated without a legal sentence of the arrest, Before the welfare of the entire nationality and its possible removal from the hatred of an entire nation; and the absolution of this offense therefore opposes another, more important end.

"In such a case, an honorable council, by the speediest execution of this investigation, and not so much as to the defense of the city at the expense of the town of Aerarii, immediately promulgated the files as a matter of law, but to the foreign faculty as soon as possible And that the return of the files should be highly recommended to have exhausted all that he could do to the advantage and ease of the fate of the insured, without neglecting other duties to the benefit of the town and citizenship. "

This detailed discussion was the following letter from the Prussian Minister of State, Marquis de Lucchesini, to the older mayor:

"Good-natured gentleman! Particularly highly exasperating Mr. Mayor! It will not be unknown to your eldest son, Ludwig Carl Reis, who has been shown to have wounded a French soldier on the day when the Hessian troops of Frankfurt had been wounded Was languishing in prisons, and had no prospect of an early liberation. I can not conceal the fact that this strictness is the most important. And all those who have the honor of serving the same will be twice ashamed at the moment when the unjust and cruel proceedings of the French in the occupied German states of every member of the empire will lead to an ever-growing displeasure rather than to an untimely one And where so much is concerned that in the hearts of the German citizens the feeling of love for the fatherland and a just hatred against the enemy who is devastated will be encouraged and not oppressed. If, indeed, I am by no means convinced that the offense committed to the rice had been really proved, it is probable that by an eight-week imprisonment, during which his health and his economy would perish, and he had a weekly loss of ten But his swift action, so very much excusable by their source, can be sufficiently punished, and easily, if this severity last longer, the thought may arise that in him not the imprudence itself, but the praiseworthy patriotism, even if here unjustly , Which appealed to him to be punished. S-Kings. Majesty, therefore, can not possibly be a right-wing citizen, who is the only brother of a grenadier of the first battalion, * and by this circumstance has a right to your gracious sympathy. Lessen indifference to sentiments, whose untimely utterance, if possible, are avoided, but which are guided, should not be suppressed. Though I am not writing on the explicit Supreme Order Hochwohlgeboren, Majesty real way of thinking. I also have no doubt that the Hochedle magistrate of the town of Huld, with all the proofs of Huld, which King Majesty has given him, will take the less decency to put the rice on the spot as soon as he is imprisoned Tenfold, the wounded Frenchman is also fully recovered; And therefore will not say anything of the consequences of a longer severity and of the possibility of inconvenient reproaches, which will then take place, but only the assurance of the esteem with which I am February 1793. "

*) Rens was not a native of Frankfurt, but had immigrated.

This letter was answered on the second of March by a further thorough discussion, which began with the explanation that this matter, so peevish to the council, had been repeatedly drawn into mature consideration, and then proceeded as follows:

"A noble council has no greater concern than the Most High Grace and grace of S-king. Preuss. To despair of his Majesty, in all the only possible ways, and wished in particular, on this occasion, to make a small test of the high value which he placed on the Predecessor's Preface by the liberation of the Reus. But when the Ew-: c. The wounded Frenchman was perfectly well-nigh, according to the files of the investigation, behaves quite differently; but, on the contrary, he can not be found in the local hospitals, and in connection with the present testimony The nature of the injury does not suggest anything other than that he died in the first days after he had been sent into the hospital on a stretcher-which, in fact, is in a state of aptitude-had died in consequence of this injury, c. And that Senatum would not be able to free the Reus without legal knowledge, unless the most hateful and humiliating mean reproaches were made on the part of the reproaches, which are so very laborious, of a very special hatred and to conspire against the French troops who are here in occupation.

"To Reus, certainly not too much, by the necessary extension of his arrest to knowledge; For he has fired against the express and especially strong imperial verbosity, indeed against the urgent warnings of his fellow-citizens, which he has not yet observed in the act itself, without any real purpose after the city had already been taken, and without the least profession of the fleeing French. Such an action whereby the perpetrator, not only himself, but the entire city, is in danger of interference, recognizes even the last manifestation of the invasion of the combined armies to France in the preceding year.* On the second day were the later conclusions of the French National Convention, on which the conclusions of Ew-: c. Remarked the unjust mode of conduct of the French in the German states occupied by them, not yet done

*) The special manifesto which Duke Ferdinand of Braunschweig, as the superintendent of the Austrian and Prussian troops, had issued on the 25th of July on the invasion of France, was mentioned here, and in which, would be threatened with the most terrible punishments for all those who would oppose these troops. In the period when they occupied the imperial city, the French had behaved differently against the local citizens. The Rens, therefore, can not, from his distant and voluntary deed, impose the honorable name of a patriotic action, and still less Leua. In the most critical period, encouraged his whole citizenship by exhortations and his own example. The deputies of this town were, in Paris, an object important to the common character; The mere leaner outcry of a hateful behavior on the part of the local inhabitants on that day of the reoccupation of the town, attracted him a week-long and perilous arrest; How would it have been for their deputies, and what adverse consequences it would have had before the town, had several local citizens behaved as unconcerned as the prisoners. It was only the manifold and public exhortations of the council, that they had carried out exact investigations, and that those who would be found to be guilty, according to the laws, would be punished.

"Consider, then, that when an abolition was desired to be made against the Reus, then not only all those protocolls of investigation, with which the local citizenship had hitherto justified themselves against those delinquent suspensions, belittled their faith Also the council the suspicion, as if he had no seriousness in discovering and punishing the perpetrators, would be charged to him;”

*) On the 15th of December, 1792, the Conveut had issued a decree, which declared enemies who would reject the liberty and equality offered by France, ordered the French generals to confiscate all public property, threatened with contribution,

Senate is certainly in accordance with the heavy duties with which the same city and citizenship is attached.

"In the meantime, the files have already been closed, and Reus has been freed, at the expense of the city of Aerarii, to make a defensive, as is also the full refutation of the unfounded pretension, as if Reus escaped to him a weekly profit of ten talers , To his wife, on account of the dyslexic domestic circumstances of her husband, by the aid of the local gentle foundations. In particular, however, the acceleration of the knowledge will be highly recommended, according to the established law of the Foreign Law Faculty. Senates thus hopes to have exhausted all that can be done to the advantage of Reus, without neglecting higher duties, and I beg, only to accept the assurances of the unconditioned worship and respect which I have the honor to honor. "

Lucchesini gave the following remarks to this letter: "Highly sincere lord! Particularly high-honorable Mr. Mayor! Since I wrote my first letter to EwHochwohlborn with prior knowledge and approval S- Kön. I would not have been able to report to the High Commission the reply which had been made. It is particularly noticeable to the king, to myself, and to all who are informed of the nature of the matter; First, that a freelance citizen was made a criminal prosecutor, and that a judgment should be made upon him, as from Ew. That the main circumstance was so little known and still ignored, which had the consequences of the injury of the French soldier wounded by the Reus, who must be brought to light in every criminal case; In the second place, that the city of Frankfurt was not at war with France, * and the dispatch of deputies to the National Convention at that time. Without dwelling on this last degeneracy, which no German citizen ever known with the true dignity of the German fatherland ever gave his assent, I must remind you of the present, but not of the times at the time. The city of Frankfurt, by virtue of its relations with the empire attacked by the French in such an unjust manner, and every member of it, is involved in the war with them, and the protection can no longer be permitted without injury to their duties Before this for granted. S-Kings. His majesty can not, therefore, be content with the reason given in Ehrenheim's letter, and insist on the wish to see the tears immediately vacated. I do not in any way doubt that Hocbedle Rath will take the less decency after this explanation As I can not conceal your Highly-born children, that if this repeated mediate intercession should not take effect, you should formally reel the rebuke to which you are most determined to take protection in your royal protection; I have held for the duty of friendship and esteem with which I am, with the exception of the obedient servant Lucchesini, Frankfurt am Main, March 4, 1793. "

The council decided at once to this letter, indeed

*) On the war with France, which had been concluded in July 1792, the German Empire decided not until the second half of the century. On the 22nd of March, 1717, the Reichstag adopted the decision, which was ratified by the Emperor on April 30th, to declare the war for a Reichskrieg, to reject the proposed request, but to dismiss the Reus against a mere juridical caution of the arrest, The mayor indicated this to the royal minister in the following words:

" Far from the most honorable remission from yesterday
'That the principles, from which he can not be separated with respect to that arrested, have not been able to obtain Hochdero's assertion. On the 'Remarks Ew-: c. On this subject the council has doubled its attention the more so as the desire and the dispositions of their king.  To the highest degree, the Council wishes to be able to test his most ambitious devotion on every occasion.

"When, however, for the cabinet of great monarchs, higher plans and retrospecies, in the first place, require a deviation from legal forms, the Council believes that for a weak state of the empire, as the local imperial city, its sphere can not be in any of them to take part in it, it is not in any single case responsible to remove from the intentions imposed on him by the laws.

"From this principle it has only been the case, if the advice against the imprisoned detachment is not a particular severity, but the very ordinary method of the order of procedure, which, under circumstances of all kinds, In any other case, to the necessity of the law, and whose application, in the present case, is subject to the examination of a foreign faculty of justice, which is to be left to its own account, by means of the sending of the files. According to these principles, the latter believes that the action of the tear is not immediately due to the changed situation of the present circumstances, but rather to the position of those under whom it has been committed, but less so in this case in order to prevent the present legal judgment from political considerations of the French hostile incursion, and in contradiction with its assurances of an impartial justice, which has been expressed by public pressure.

"S-Kings. In the most glorious government, Majesty have given too much and clear evidence of how little you may be in the power of a magistrate to intervene in the direct and judicious way of the Judges, With the exception of the most just justification of these principles in the present case - according to which, in my last letter, further details are the same.

"To this invaluable rehearsal of Dero's sympathy for the local life, I beg my pardon; And, by the same token, in a special petition which had been submitted to him at the time of his admission to the legal caution, that he would not be removed without permission, and would submit to what law and laws would at one time be recognized by declaring his verdict Provisional liberation from the arrested, the same request has been immediately resigned from his prison.

"I shall be particularly fortunate in my own place, when Ew-: c. In the speeding up of this compliant resolution of the council, by which he wished to exert his profound veneration against the very highest royal proclamation, will at the same time recognize an effect of unrestrained worship and veneration, with which I have the honor to insist March 1793. "

This concluded this transaction. As you can see, it was conducted with circumspection by the Frankfurt Council. It is only striking, however, that one has not emphasized, above all, a point on which a special weight was obviously to be laid, namely the fact that Reus did not shoot until the French soldiers had thrown off their guns, had made his action quite serious, had shot at the defenseless. By the way, the court proceedings ended with a provisional release, because he was already seriously ill and did not recover. He had already been taken to Senckenberg Hospital. Here his illness, the pulmonary dyspnoea, continued to increase, and since she soon proved to be incurable, the appointment of a defender was forbidden. He died in March 1794.

Let us look once again at the war-event represented, chiefly to pay due regard to the merit which, in the case of the latter, and in the highest degree, the Hessians, and at the same time also the Frankfurt, have acquired themselves.

The storming of Frankfurt through the Hessians was the only one, though not as a contemporary has said, the most brilliant vigor in the entire campaign of 1792; And "Housekeeper rightly said:" After the methodical slowness had neglected the best opportunities and had depreciated martial self-confidence, it made a very refreshing impression to see once more the old soldier indifference and the unbridled courage of earlier days Over the method of the victory. The small but brave contingent of the Kassel landgrave was a troop, which was almost the only one of all the small armies of that time, who possessed martial spirit, exercise, and military traditions, even in the assurances of Prussian officers Unfortunate campaigns, had prompted all other troops to be warlike and unyielding. "

At that time the Hessians were called the German Spartans, and in 1792, the officers and commons of the Hessian Corps were worthy of the honorable names, but also the inhabitants of the Hessian lands who had remained in the towns and villages. On the 28th of October, when the French had begun to expel the proclamation of the landgrave and demand his troops to cross, they caused great resentment in the whole Hessian people. This general sentiment and its profound reason can not be better represented than has been the case by a Hesse. * His words, which portray the Hessian spirit with vivid colors, may therefore be repeated here:

"Where, for a century and a half, the life of the Bolkes intertwined most intimately with his armies, where several generations of age united under one shaman the power and the flower of a landscape where the grandson shared the honors of the banner which his fathers had already exercised with their virtue Where the family, community, and comradeship were fused together in an alliance, as in the Hessian fatherland, the strongest response had to be felt in the people. For where, indeed, a hut might have been found in the local marks, from which no warrior had passed, and how many would be counted, under whose roof the gray-haired Ahn still remained, whose blood was at Rocour and Laffeld, Victory fields of Minden and Crefeld

*) The first firing of Frankfurt through the Hesse on the 2nd, Kassel, 1843, p. 5.

Where the wages of the Indians on the shores of the Delaware had struck him, and which both represented the noble example of imitation to imitation in the warrior's clothing. Thus it happened that whenever a French appeal had been made by disseminated dissemblers in Hesse, a hundred hands stretched out to tear him and kick him under the feet. At that time, in the whole of the lowlands, as in the desolate valleys of the forest mountains, it was irresistible to arm themselves and equip themselves to meet the invading enemies. If, on the other hand, the astonished traveler in Hesse, the inhabitants of the villages occupied the rural scythes in a warlike halberd, the flail in one Morning; He met veterans long ago, in their newly-honored ceremonial dress, as they instructed the young men in the handling and dressing of those weapons; The knowledge which came out from him was heard by the enemies, who were approaching ever closer and closer to the enemy, with the rejoicing of the fiercest campaign. “

The following examples may be used to express this character and spirit of the Hesse. First of all, the feeling of their cohesion, the affection for the home, and the share which all took in the deeds and fortunes of their soldiers, appeared after the storm of the 2nd of December in Hesse, everywhere, the striving for the wounded countrymen for the families of the fallen warriors. It was not only the Landgraf that, as we know, was concerned with this care, but also in all the villages, even the most distant villages. A few parishes, especially from the immediate vicinity, soon sent food and drink to Frankfurt. Even the largest, and partly poor, inhabitants of the Flemish village, far from the Schmalkaldic, gave a thaler as a gift to each of the 25 village-companions who had participated in the battle. Poultry and cakes, especially on Christmas, were sent to the Lazartshe in Frankfurt. A baker in the Hessian village of Bergen, a mile and a half from Frankfurt, baked many apple cakes for his countrymen immediately after the storm, and brought them, together with a bottle of apple wine, with help from his wife and child, to the soldiers of the Garde-Grenadier Regiment, which had been situated in the quarters of Bergen. He found the soldiers almost saturated with the care of the Frankfurters and braked over them in noisy complaints. He was directed to the hussars stationed at the Bockenheim gate, and he went to them after he had made an escort, so that his gift, determined only for Hesse, would not be robbed by others. He had the joy of being received by the Hussars with joyous thanks. When he came home, he gave him a captured horse, on which he proudly advanced to Bergen.

The bravery of the Hessians shines brilliantly from what has already been reported; It is nevertheless necessary to show some examples of the same. When, in October, the French had sent some of the Streif patrols to Hanau, they found the inhabitants in the villages on their way armed and resisted, as well as the gates and towers of the many villages still encircled with walls. At the village of Markköbel, into which they sought admission, they received the mocking reply from the schoolyard standing on a brickyard: as they had gained the fortress of Mainz with so little trouble, they would at the same time attempt what it would cost them, Markkobbel to conquer. The same courageous Linn was shown by a tailor from the Hessian village of Büdesheim, not far from Frankfurt. He had unarmed the first guard battalion, who, as the Friedberger Thor was attacked, had unarmed himself, marching merrily over his head, and was one of the first to enter the Thor. Moreover, all the troops appointed for the attack on the day before, when they heard that the storm was now to take place, had received this news of my rejoicing, and received the Prussian king, who visited them in their cantons, with enthusiastic acclamations; They prepared themselves as a parade for a storm, and even those among them, who were ill, asked their officers to take part in the same part.

We can not exclude the suggestion of such examples of the courage and fatherland love of the Hessians, without recalling in any earlier period, one of the most brilliant arms of the history of this nation, and at the same time one of the most brilliant in German history at all mention.

As the 2nd of December, 1792, is one of the military honors of Hessen, the year l 474/75 was one of his earliest years. At that time, Prince Hermann of Hesse, for an annual administrator and later elector of the Archbishopric of Cologne, was conquered by Charles the Bold of Burgundy, and his brother, Landgraf Heinrich III. Of Hesse, sent him not a thousand men on foot and 500 horsemen, but he himself also appeared afterwards with 15,000 men. Those 1500 pre-sent were used as a garrison of the city of Neuss, for whose possession the battle mainly revolted. They were besieged by Charles the Bold, who had led 60,000 men of the best troops of that time. The Landgraf, when he came up with five thousand men, could no longer enter the closed city; But he set up his camp at a height near him, and from this place, as far as possible, would assist the besieged, with whom he corresponded by letters shot in hollow arrows. He could not, however, break the ring which the Burgundians had formed. The latter, in vain, offered everything in order to force the Hesse, included in Neuss, to surrender; Because they were unconquerable. They defended themselves, in spite of the immense overpowering of the enemy, heroically for almost a whole year. July 1474 to 17 June 1475, although they had at last consumed all the food, even their whole store of salt, and had to eat nothing but horse-meat. They beat no less than 56 storms during those eleven months. The siege had at last been turned into a blockade to starve the city; Seven hundred of the strongholds had been descended, three hundred houses had been cremated, an arm of the Rhine was demolished, an island taken from the enemy, and the smaller rivers were derived, and yet the courage of the Hessians was not broken, their persevering power paralyzed. Charles the Bold was able to overcome the 1500 Hesse with his 00,000 men. He himself was still so active that he had not changed his clothes for more than ten months. He had said aloud, that if he left Neuss, four things would have taken place: either he had to conquer the city, or voluntarily surrendered to him, or the appearing Reichsheer must have driven him out, or he himself found death. It was only after the Reichsheer, consisting of 43,000 men, had arrived, and Charles, who had once again been thwarted by the blokade again, in a single day nine times in vain, was able to withdraw. He had lost not less than 15,000 men before Neuss.

The defense of the town of Nuss by the Hesse deserves to be refreshed again and again in the memory of the German nation. If the French, who are far more glorious than we are, would have done such a thing, the memory of them would always be glorified anew in all schools, as well as in all the youthful and youthful writings.

Not as splendid as the war of the Hessians of December 2, 1792, but worthy of recognition is what the citizens of Frankfort had done in those days and in the preceding six weeks. From the moment when their city had been taken by surprise by the French, they had shown a firm, honorable attitude to the latter, by appealing to the inevitable, treating their uninvited guests kindly, in spite of the unprecedented controversy, By the political enthusiasm of the latter, still intimidated by threats in the negotiations with Cüstine. Evidence of this is given by the above statements as to what the magistrate and his deputations have done, as well as the letter of the master of the castle, Auerbach, of November 23rd, and the address, signed on 5 November by all the craftsmen, to Cüstine. The report of the attempt by the French to set up the so-called "Freiheitsbäumen" ("freedom trees") is also to be added to Frankfurt. In Mainz and in the opposite Castel, this attempt had been successful. There had been erected several liberty trees: they were small trees, stuck in the ground, adorned with the red freedom cap. People often danced around them, and Cüstine not only played military music, but also drank whole barrels of wine from these trees. The same experiment did not succeed in Frankfurt. When Cüstine came to Frankfurt for the first time, he also visited Sachsenhausen. He asked the inhabitants of this suburb whether they had a forest and wanted to give it a tree. They replied coldly and indifferently that if he wanted to have one, he could get one, and if they had a need, they would know how to get it. In other respects, too, he heard the Frankfurters only scoff at the freedom trees popular in Mainz; Among others, a Jew said that these were made of a tree without a root and a cap without a head. Cüstine therefore did not erect a liberty-tree in Frankfurt.

Far above these negative merits are the actions of the love of love which Frankfurt did in 1792, as well as the prudence with which at that time the magistrate and the bourgeoisie had behaved in the difficult circumstances. Several examples have already been given of both merits, and these are only supplemented by a few others. When the tradesmen began to pursue the fleeing Frenchmen at the time of the Hessian invasion on the 2nd of December, three citizens, notary Jänicke, the court judge Weil, and the physician Dr. Ehrmann, together, to keep them from it; Others, standing in front of their houses, asked the embittered Hesse for protection for the defeated French, or secured the latter against the first fury by accepting the enemies, who were hated even to them, into their houses. They also brought help and relief to the wounded enemies. All this is accounted for by written explanations, which a large part of the captured French officers and commons issued on the 5th, 6th and 10th of December. For the wounded Hessians, a special zeal was taken care of: the magistrate immediately ordered a considerable sum of money for their meals, ordered all the surgeons of the city to be obliged to be on duty, and ordered that the wounded Hessians be transferred to the hospital Citizen and bystanders of the Senckenbergische Spital. Besides, a women's association was formed at once, which, guided by the most distinguished ladies, took care in every way for the wounded. On the part of the inhabitants, for the countrymen as well as for the enemies, shirts, bedclothes, stockings, wine, food, and A. were brought together in such quantity that after a few days the presidents of the hospital would have to ask them to be overflowed Increased donations. A Hessian soldier praised the words of the liberation of the people of Frankfurt, who said to me, "The Frankfurt citizen gave us, The French helped with wine, beer, and snacks and food, which we could only subdue. "Money was also collected for both classes of wounded, and also more than was necessary, so that they were compelled to divide a part of it In the meantime, in order to support the Hessians who had become disabled, as well as the widows and orphans of those who remained, concerts, concerts, and theater performances were organized, and this was repeated on the next anniversary of December 2nd.

Concerning the participation of civilians in the struggle with the French, the magistrate ordered a careful investigation, in which the wounded French, as well as 62 inhabitants, were heard as witnesses. The interrogated French gave only three civilians as those whom they had been wounded; The inhabitants who had been investigated, however, had indicated only the rene mentioned above, and a soldier in the city, who had attacked the French. The latter had not even been guilty of a wound, but merely an enemy pursued by three Hessian cavalry, on the incitement of the latter, with a drawn saber, until the horsemen fetched him and put him down; he was punished with 25 strikes.

The behavior of the citizens of Frankfurt and their magistrates during the last half of 1792 found the right recognition throughout Germany. Even when the anniversary of December 2, 792, was celebrated in Kurhessen, and on this occasion a description of the assault of Frankfort was made, the author pronounced the honorable word: "Will a German-speaking German from another tribe also want to join us. He was to be assured of a fraternal hand, and, being a Frankfurt, he would be given the honorary seat before him. "On 23 December 1793, the King of Prussia, too, ordered the magistrate of Frankfort, whose citizens were at that time on the left The Rhine, were rewarded by their Cabinet Councilors with a letter of thanks which evidently contributed to the recollection of the December of 1792. This letter read: "The King of our most gracious Majesty have been particularly pleased to hear that The inhabitants of the empire Is an excellent, noble, and kind-hearted way of supporting the royal troops standing in the field by means of considerable voluntary contributions. We are expressly commanded to testify to the gentlemen and their citizenship in the name of S. Majesty, that the highest defenders will recognize with great gratitude the active proofs of their good and empire-patriotic sentiments, and keep them in everlasting mercy, and to give to the well-to-do inhabitants, in cases of occurrence, convincing features of their protection and their gracious kindness. As a result of the highest order we have received, we ask the same men to bring the majesty expressed in the present letter to the attention of this good citizenship, and remain, on the other hand, always ready to provide pleasant pleasures. King, Prussian. The secret secretary councilor Haugwitz, Alvensleben. "

And now, in the end, a letter of Goethe, which shows especially how universally the recognition was made, which was attributed to the attitude of Frankfurt at that time. Frankfurt's most famous son has set an honorary memorial with this letter of his native city. For the sake of understanding, the remark must be advanced that on September 19, 1792, Goethe's Oheuu, Senator and Schoff Johann Jost Textor, died, and the constitution had allowed an uncle and his nephew not to be councilors at the same time To choose the council. They had decided to do so, as far as possible; For in the occupation of a council, three men were always to be elected, and between them decided by the lot. Goethe's mother had accepted to ask her son, and he gave the following answer on the 24th of December:

"The hope of seeing you again, my beloved mother, and my dear friends in Frankfurt, has now disappeared, since the circumstances required me to return from Duesseldorf via Paderborn and Cassel to Weimar.

"How much concern I have had to you so far! How much regret the situation in which my countrymen are! How much I admired the conduct of the same in such critical circumstances! Certainly I could not have been more flattering than the question whether I could make up my mind to accept a council, if the lot were for me? Which reaches me at the moment, since it is an honor to be born as a Frankfurt citizen before Europe, even before the whole world.

"The friends of my youth, whom I have always cherished so many causes, could not give me a more beautiful sign of their perpetual remembrance than by taking advantage of the administration of the common being in this important epoch.

"Her letter, which I received in the midst of the turmoil of the war, refreshed me with sad hours, which I had to live through, and I could, according to circumstances, hope to see my beloved father-city again in a little while.

"It was my intention to express my gratitude for the excellent honor which had been shown to me, and at the same time to present the situation in which I was present at length and with sincerity.

"In the irresistible predilection which every philanthropist feels for his fatherland, it would be a painful pretext to reject a passage which every citizen will gladly accept, and especially should take over at this time, if not on the other hand, my local conditions So happy and I may well be said of my merit.

"The Duke's Highness has treated me with excellent grace for so many years; I have owed them so much that it would be the greatest ingratitude to leave my post at a moment, as the state needs the faithful servant most.

"Thank you, I pray, to the liveliest worthy men who show such friendly sentiments against me, assure you of my most sincere gratitude, and seek to preserve their confidence in the future.

"As soon as circumstances allow, I shall be content with the feelings of my heart, and will present verbally and circumstantially what could only have been superficial in this letter. Let all that is worthwhile to my worthy landlords at present be far away, and to us all the desirable peace soon reappear! Good luck for the future!"

Extracted from:
Deutsche Kulturbilder aus dem achtzehnten Jahrhundert: nebst einem Anhang, Goethe als Rechtsanwalt
Georg Ludwig Kriegk, 1874

When Custine and his French revolutionary army were forced out of Frankfurt by the Prussian army in the winter and later when he did not take any offensive action against the Austrians in northern France, he was accused of treason. Custine was found guilty by the Revolutionary Tribunal, a court instituted in Paris for the trial of public offenders, for having intrigued with the enemies of the French Republic. Comte de Custine was sentenced to the guillotine and died on August 28, 1793.

Extracted from:
Deutsche Kulturbilder aus dem achtzehnten Jahrhundert: nebst einem Anhang, Goethe als Rechtsanwalt
Georg Ludwig Kriegk, 1874

When Cüstine and his French revolutionary army were forced out of Frankfurt by the Prussian army in the winter and later when he did not take any offensive action against the Austrians in northern France, he was accused of treason. Cüstine was found guilty by the Revolutionary Tribunal, a court instituted in Paris for the trial of public offenders, for having intrigued with the enemies of the French Republic. Comte de Cüstine was sentenced to the guillotine and died on August 28, 1793.

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